Comparison of ephedrine and ketamine in prevention of injection pain and hypotension due to propofol induction

Background and objective: This prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study compares the effects of ephedrine and ketamine on injection pain, and hypotension from propofol. Methods: After obtaining the approval of the Ethics Commitee, 75 patients (ASA I-II) scheduled for elective operations with general anaesthesia were divided into three groups. Saline 2 mL (Group S, n = 25), ketamine 0.5 mg kg-1 (Group K, n = 25) or ephedrine 70 µg kg-1 (Group E, n = 25) were administered over 5 s after tourniquet application. After releasing the tourniquet, propofol 2 mg kg-1 was injected in 30 s. Pain was evaluated on a numerical scale (0-10) where 0 represented no pain and 10 the most severe pain possible. Systolic, diastolic blood pressures and heart rates were recorded preoperatively, 1 min after propofol injection, before intubation and 1, 2 and 3 min after intubation in all patients. Results: The incidences of pain in Groups S, E and K were similar (84%, 80% and 72%, respectively). The mean pain score in Group K (2.1, SD 3.1) was significantly lower than those of Groups S and E (4.9, SD 2.6 and 4.6, SD 3.3, respectively) (P < 0.05). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure values in Group K (120 ± 27 mmHg) and Group E (123 ± 21 mmHg) before intubation were significantly higher than that of Group S (104 ± 25 mmHg) (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the mean heart rate values of the groups. Conclusions: Low dose ketamine or ephedrine pretreatment may prevent hypotension due to propofol induction. Despite the reduction in injection pain intensity after ketamine, the study drugs were found to be ineffective in lowering the injection pain incidence. © 2005 European Society of Anaesthesiology.

Dergi Adı European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Dergi Cilt Bilgisi 22
Dergi Sayısı 1
Sayfalar 44 - 48
Yayın Yılı 2005
Eser Adı
[dc.title]
Comparison of ephedrine and ketamine in prevention of injection pain and hypotension due to propofol induction
Yazar
[dc.contributor.author]
Özkoçak I.
Yazar
[dc.contributor.author]
Altunkaya H.
Yazar
[dc.contributor.author]
Özer Y.
Yazar
[dc.contributor.author]
Ayoglu H.
Yazar
[dc.contributor.author]
Demirel C.B.
Yazar
[dc.contributor.author]
Çiçek E.
Yayın Yılı
[dc.date.issued]
2005
Yayın Türü
[dc.type]
article
Özet
[dc.description.abstract]
Background and objective: This prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study compares the effects of ephedrine and ketamine on injection pain, and hypotension from propofol. Methods: After obtaining the approval of the Ethics Commitee, 75 patients (ASA I-II) scheduled for elective operations with general anaesthesia were divided into three groups. Saline 2 mL (Group S, n = 25), ketamine 0.5 mg kg-1 (Group K, n = 25) or ephedrine 70 µg kg-1 (Group E, n = 25) were administered over 5 s after tourniquet application. After releasing the tourniquet, propofol 2 mg kg-1 was injected in 30 s. Pain was evaluated on a numerical scale (0-10) where 0 represented no pain and 10 the most severe pain possible. Systolic, diastolic blood pressures and heart rates were recorded preoperatively, 1 min after propofol injection, before intubation and 1, 2 and 3 min after intubation in all patients. Results: The incidences of pain in Groups S, E and K were similar (84%, 80% and 72%, respectively). The mean pain score in Group K (2.1, SD 3.1) was significantly lower than those of Groups S and E (4.9, SD 2.6 and 4.6, SD 3.3, respectively) (P < 0.05). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure values in Group K (120 ± 27 mmHg) and Group E (123 ± 21 mmHg) before intubation were significantly higher than that of Group S (104 ± 25 mmHg) (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the mean heart rate values of the groups. Conclusions: Low dose ketamine or ephedrine pretreatment may prevent hypotension due to propofol induction. Despite the reduction in injection pain intensity after ketamine, the study drugs were found to be ineffective in lowering the injection pain incidence. © 2005 European Society of Anaesthesiology.
Kayıt Giriş Tarihi
[dc.date.accessioned]
2019-12-23
Açık Erişim Tarihi
[dc.date.available]
2019-12-23
Yayın Dili
[dc.language.iso]
eng
Konu Başlıkları
[dc.subject]
Anaesthetics, intravenous, ketamine, propofol
Konu Başlıkları
[dc.subject]
Hypotension, pain measurement, injections, intravenous
Konu Başlıkları
[dc.subject]
Randomized controlled trial
Konu Başlıkları
[dc.subject]
Sympathomimetics, ephedrine
Haklar
[dc.rights]
info:eu-repo/semantics/closedAccess
ISSN
[dc.identifier.issn]
0265-0215
İlk Sayfa Sayısı
[dc.identifier.startpage]
44
Son Sayfa Sayısı
[dc.identifier.endpage]
48
Dergi Adı
[dc.relation.journal]
European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Dergi Sayısı
[dc.identifier.issue]
1
Dergi Cilt Bilgisi
[dc.identifier.volume]
22
Tek Biçim Adres
[dc.identifier.uri]
https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0265021505000104
Tek Biçim Adres
[dc.identifier.uri]
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12628/4807
Görüntülenme Sayısı ( Şehir )
Görüntülenme Sayısı ( Ülke )
Görüntülenme Sayısı ( Zaman Dağılımı )
Görüntülenme
22
09.12.2022 tarihinden bu yana
İndirme
1
09.12.2022 tarihinden bu yana
Son Erişim Tarihi
18 Şubat 2024 18:25
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Tıklayınız
propofol injection ketamine (Group intubation ephedrine diastolic before Groups respectively) values significantly tourniquet groups patients hypotension ineffective intensity lowering incidence European Society Anaesthesiology Despite reduction significant difference between higher Conclusions pretreatment prevent pressure systolic induction
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