Ventrella, Emanuela | Adamski, Zbigniew | Chudzinska, Ewa | Miadowicz-Kobielska, Mariola | Marciniak, Pavel | Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Erdem, Meltem | Falabella, Patrizia | Scrano, Laura | Bufo, Sabino Aurelio
Article | 2016 | PLoS ONE11 ( 5 )
Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids ?-solanine, ?-chaconine and ?-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number . . .of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. © 2016 Ventrella et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Daha fazlası Daha az
Cag Y. | Karabay O. | Sipahi O.R. | Aksoy F. | Durmus G. | Batirel A. | Ak O.
Article | 2018 | PLoS ONE13 ( 9 )
Sepsis is a severe clinical syndrome owing to its high mortality. Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score has been proposed for the prediction of fatal outcomes in sepsis syndrome in emergency departments. Due to the low predictive performance of the qSOFA score, we propose a modification to the score by adding age. We conducted a multi-center, retrospective cohort study among regional referral centers from various regions of the country. Participants recruited data of patients admitted to emergency departments and obtained a diagnosis of sepsis syndrome. Crude in-hospital mortality was the primary endpoint. A genera . . .lized mixed-effects model with random intercepts produced estimates for adverse outcomes. Model-based recursive partitioning demonstrated the effects and thresholds of significant covariates. Scores were internally validated. The H measure compared performances of scores. A total of 580 patients from 22 centers were included for further analysis. Stages of sepsis, age, time to antibiotics, and administration of carbapenem for empirical treatment were entered the final model. Among these, severe sepsis (OR, 4.40; CIs, 2.35–8.21), septic shock (OR, 8.78; CIs, 4.37–17.66), age (OR, 1.03; CIs, 1.02–1.05) and time to antibiotics (OR, 1.05; CIs, 1.01–1.10) were significantly associated with fatal outcomes. A decision tree demonstrated the thresholds for age. We modified the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (mod-qSOFA) score by adding age (> 50 years old = one point) and compared this to the conventional score. H-measures for qSOFA and mod-qSOFA were found to be 0.11 and 0.14, respectively, whereas AUCs of both scores were 0.64. We propose the use of the modified qSOFA score for early risk assessment among sepsis patients for improved triage and management of this fatal syndrome. © 2018 Cag et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Daha fazlası Daha az
Toprak S. | Ersoy G.
Article | 2017 | PLoS ONE12 ( 8 )
Although intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important problem that threatens women’s health, very few studies focus on the victim—perpetrator relationship or examine this relationship across Turkey. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of femicide cases in Turkey and to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, forensic, and criminological characteristics of femicide victims and offenders. This study analysed 162 femicide cases that occurred in 12 cities in Turkey from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2010. Eighty women were killed by their partners (classified as intimate partner femicide, IPF), and 81 w . . .omen were killed by one of their relatives, friends, or strangers (classified as non-intimate partner femicide, non-IPF). According to our results, the typical IPF victim is of child-bearing age, does not have a paid job, is married or divorced, is killed in a domestic setting due to injuries to the thorax or abdomen produced by an edged/pointed weapon or firearm, and is possibly a victim of overkill. The typical IPF perpetrator is close to his victim’s age, has a paid job, has no mental disability, owns a gun, and has threatened his partner or ex-partner previously because of jealousy/infidelity/honour or separation. The typical non-IPF victim is very similar to the IPF victim; however, her marital status can be single, married or divorced, and she is commonly killed by a relative. The surveillance and screening of femicide and IPV is an important step when analysing and attempting to prevent femicide. Second, the training and sensitization of health professionals are important. Moreover, health staff should be encouraged to participate in advocacy interventions. Third, gun ownership must be brought under control. © 2017 Toprak, Ersoy. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Daha fazlası Daha az
Akgül F. | Serçelik A. | Çetin H. | Erten T.
Article | 2017 | PLoS ONE12 ( 11 )
Background: Previous reports about the relationship between a high parathyroid hormone (PTH) and low vitamin D levels with blood pressure in different hypertension groups are conflicting. Objective: We studied serum PTH and vitamin D levels in white-coat (WCHT) and sustained hypertension (SHT) patients who had not been on antihypertensive treatment. We also investigated the association between serum PTH and vitamin D levels with respect to blood pressure in SHT and WCHT patients. Methods: We included 52 SHT patients (54.06 ± 9.2 years, 32 newly diagnosed and 20 previously diagnosed with SHT who had not been treated with antihyperten . . .sive medication for 3 months or more), 48 WCHT patients (53.64 ± 9.5 years), and 50 normotensive (NT) healthy controls (53.44 ± 8.4 years) in our study. In addition to routine tests, PTH and vitamin D levels were measured. Results: Serum PTH levels were significantly higher in SHT patients not taking antihypertensive medications than in WCHT patients and NT controls (p = 0.004). Although PTH levels were higher in WCHT than in NT groups, the difference was not statistically significant. In SHT patients, PTH levels showed a positive correlation with office systolic (r = 0.363, p = 0.008), office diastolic (r = 0.282, p = 0.038), home systolic (r = 0.390, p = 0.004), and home diastolic blood pressures (r = 0.397, p = 0.003). Serum vitamin D levels were similar in SHT, WCHT and NT groups. Vitamin D levels were not associated with blood pressures in the entire study group. Furthermore, no significant relation was found between vitamin D and PTH levels in SHT and WCHT groups. Conclusion: PTH levels are significantly higher in untreated SHT patients than WCHT patients and NT subjects. However, vitamin D levels are similar in SHT, WCHT and NT groups. There is a significant association between PTH levels and blood pressures suggesting PTH has a role in increase of blood pressure in SHT. © 2017 Akgül et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Daha fazlası Daha az