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Spatial and Seasonal Variations of Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) in Drinking Water Distribution Systems of Istanbul City, Turkey

Uyak, Vedat | Soylu, Senay | Topal, Tufan | Karapınar, Nazan | Özdemir, Kadir | Özaydın, Şahin | Avşar, Edip

Article | 2014 | Environmental Forensics15 ( 2 ) , pp.190 - 205

This study presents the seasonal and spatial variations of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in 30 sampling points within three water distribution systems of Istanbul City, Turkey. The effects of surface water quality, seasonal variation, and species differences were examined. The occurrence of chlorinated THMs and HAAs levels was considerably lower in the system in which raw water is subjected to pre-ozonation versus pre-chlorination. Seasonal analysis of the data indicated that the median concentration of four THMs (THM4) was higher than nine HAAs (HAA9) concentrations in all three distribution systems sampling po . . .ints. For all distribution systems monitored, the highest median THM4 and HAA9 concentrations were observed in the spring and summer season, while the lowest concentrations of these disinfection byproduct (DBP) compounds were obtained in the fall and winter period. Due to the higher level of bromide in supplying waters of these two systems, moderate levels of brominated DBP species have been observed in the Kagithane and Buyukcekmece distribution systems districts. In fact, Spearman partial correlations (Spearman rank correlation coefficients [rs]) tend to be higher among analogues in terms of number and types of substituent, especially TCAA with TCM (rs 0.91), and DBAA with DBCM (rs 0.90). In contrast, the hydraulic (residence time and flow rate) and chemical mechanisms (hydrolysis, volatilization, and adsorption) affect the fate and transport of DBPs in distribution systems. Seasonal and spatial variations of DBPs presented in this study have important implications on regulatory issues and from an epidemiological point of view. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Daha fazlası Daha az

Biomonitoring of metal deposition in the vicnity of Eregli steel plant in Turkey

Uyar, Güray | Ören, Muhammet | Yıldırım, Yılmaz | Öncel, Salim

Article | 2008 | Environmental Forensics9 ( 4 ) , pp.350 - 363

This article describes the first attempt to study the concentration of seven element (Fe, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, and As) contaminations in the vicinity of the Eregli Iron and Steel Plant (ERDEMIR) by analysis of two pleurocarpic moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme and Scleropodium purum). Samples of H. cupressiforme were collected from May 2003 to October 2004. Unwashed, dried samples were digested with HNO3/HClO4, and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). In the region, general orders of heavy metal content in samples of mosses were determined as follows: Fe > Pb . . .> Cr > Ni > Cu > Co > As. Comparisons were made between the two moss species for those elements presents at different concentrations and regression analysis were made to see interspecies relationship. H. cupressiforme and S. purum are significantly correlated for only Fe (P < 0.01) having Pearson's correlation coefficient as 0.93, indicating interspecies calibration for Fe. The ratios (Hc/Sp) were relatively better correlated with 1/Sp for As than for other metals, suggesting a saturation effect in H. cupressiforme for As. The deposition of metals due to the operation of the steel plant has been established and could be further monitored. Such information could be useful for forensic studies aiming to apportion between different possible sources of those metals. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Daha fazlası Daha az

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