The role of coal in energy policy and sustainable development of Turkey: Is it compatible to the EU energy policy?

Baris K.

Article | 2011 | Energy Policy39 ( 3 ) , pp.1754 - 1763

This paper aims to assess the current and future role of coal in energy strategy of Turkey, and evaluates the compatibility of policies to the EU energy policy and strategy. Coal is regarded as the most important indigenous energy source in Turkey together with hydropower to strengthen the supply security of the country. Turkish government set targets to fully utilize coal reserves of the country in next decades. However, the country is also in the process of becoming an EU Member State, hence, it is expected that the energy policies have to comply with the EU. Moreover, Turkey ratified Kyoto Protocol in 2009, thus the country shoul . . .d limit CO2 emission together with other greenhouse gases. The probable obstacles that Turkey may face due to the utilization of coal were determined as CO2 emissions, lack of technology and application in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and health and safety issues. It is concluded that coal is a very important domestic energy source for Turkey but new policies have to be developed and adopted immediately, and more realistic targets for the country should be set accordingly. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd Daha fazlası Daha az

Availibility of renewable energy sources in Turkey: Current situation, potential, government policies and the EU perspective

Baris K. | Kucukali S.

Article | 2012 | Energy Policy42 , pp.377 - 391

This study aims to explore the availability and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey as well as assessing related government policies, financial and environmental aspects of renewable energy projects. Turkey is a country which has the highest hydropower, wind and geothermal energy potential among European countries. As a European Union (EU) candidate several incentives were developed in Turkey for electricity generation from renewable energy sources by the enactment of Law No. 5346 in 2005 which was later restructured by Law No. 6094 in 2010. The most important ones are: ease of land acquisition and feed-in-tariffs which . . .promise purchasing of electricity generated and domestic manufacturing of equipment by the private companies with a price of 5.30-9.69 and 0.3-2.55 €c/kWh, respectively, depending on the type of the renewable and the equipment. However, feed-in tariff amounts take reservoir area into account instead of installed capacity for hydroelectric power plants. Moreover, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report is not mandatory for all renewable energy plants. According to the multi-criteria analysis tool developed in this study to evaluate the renewable energy source (RES) technologies the most appropriate renewable energy alternative for Turkey is biomass, simply because of the highest social benefit among others. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd Daha fazlası Daha az


Küçükali, Serhat

Article | 2010 | Energy Policy38 ( 4 ) , pp.2063 - 2064

[No abstract available]

The renewable energy and economic growth nexus in black sea and Balkan Countries

Koçak E. | Şarkgüneşi A.

Article | 2017 | Energy Policy100 , pp.51 - 57

The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth within the framework of traditional production function for the period of 1990–2012 in 9 Black Sea and Balkan countries. For this purpose, we use Pedroni (1999, 2004) panel cointegration, Pedroni (2000, 2001) co-integration estimate methods and Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012) heterogeneous panel causality estimation techniques. The study has concluded that there is a long term balance relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth and renewable energy consumption has a positive impact on economic growth. . . .Heterogeneous panel causality analysis results support growth hypothesis in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Russia and Ukraine; feedback hypothesis in Albania, Georgia and Romania; neutrality hypothesis in Turkey and according to the panel data set including all nine countries the results support feedback hypothesis. With the findings, it was concluded that there is a significant impact of renewable energy consumption on economic growth in Balkan and Black Sea Countries. © 2016 Elsevier Lt Daha fazlası Daha az


Küçükali, Serhat

Editorial | 2010 | Energy Policy38 ( 10 ) , pp.6379 - 6380

[No abstract available]

Hydropower potential of municipal water supply dams in Turkey: A case study in Ulutan Dam

Kucukali S.

Article | 2010 | Energy Policy38 ( 11 ) , pp.6534 - 6539

This paper aims to analyze the hydropower potential of municipal water supply dams in Turkey. The facility is in favor with the energy policy of Turkish Government and European Union. In the study, the design head of the power plant was selected as the average water level of the reservoir and the discharge was calculated from the annual water supply of the dam. It has been estimated that the existing 45 municipal water supply dams of Turkey have an electric energy potential of 173GWh/year, corresponding to about 24,000,000 Euro/year economic benefit. The financing of these facilities can be provided from international funding instit . . .utions. For a case study, Zonguldak Ulutan Dam and its water treatment plant have been investigated in detail. The current electricity consumption of the water treatment plant is 4,500,000kWh/year and the facility provides 35,000m 3/day water to 6 settlements. The installation of a hydropower plant on the mentioned water treatment plant will cut the electric consumption by 24%. The proposed project has a payback period of 1.4 years and it can produce clean and feasible energy. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd Daha fazlası Daha az

Energy consumption and economic growth nexus for 17 highly developed OECD countries: Further evidence based on bootstrap-corrected causality tests

Yildirim E. | Aslan A.

Article | 2012 | Energy Policy51 , pp.985 - 993

Unlike previous energy consumption-economic growth studies, this study examines the relationship among energy consumption, economic growth, employment and gross fixed capital formation for 17 highly developed OECD countries by employing both the Toda-Yamamoto procedure which based on asymptotic critical values and the bootstrap-corrected causality test, since non-normality of the error term harms the validity of the Toda-Yamamoto procedure. This study finds that there is very small bias due to the assumption of normality. Furthermore using different information criterions, importance of lag length is tested. Findings indicate that s . . .election of lag length is important for Denmark, Ireland, Norway and Spain. It is concluded that while there exists uni-directional causality running from energy consumption to real GDP for Japan, bi-directional causality is found for Italy, New Zealand, Norway and Spain. On the other hand, uni-directional causality from GDP to energy is found for Australia, Canada and Ireland whereas no causal nexus is found for all of other nine countries. Our analyses covering the sample periods imply that Japan, Italy, New Zealand, Norway and Spain should not follow energy conservation policy at the aggregated level, since the reduction of energy damages the economic growth. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd Daha fazlası Daha az

Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand forecast by fuzzy logic approach

Kucukali S. | Baris K.

Article | 2010 | Energy Policy38 ( 5 ) , pp.2438 - 2445

This paper aims to forecast Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand by applying fuzzy logic methodology while general information on economical, political and electricity market conditions of the country is also given. Unlike most of the other forecast models about Turkey's electricity demand, which usually uses more than one parameter, gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing power parity was the only parameter used in the model. Proposed model made good predictions and captured the system dynamic behavior covering the years of 1970-2014. The model yielded average absolute relative errors of 3.9%. Furthermore, t . . .he model estimates a 4.5% decrease in electricity demand of Turkey in 2009 and the electricity demand growth rates are projected to be about 4% between 2010 and 2014. It is concluded that forecasting the Turkey's short-term gross electricity demand with the country's economic performance will provide more reliable projections. Forecasting the annual electricity consumption of a country could be made by any designer with the help of the fuzzy logic procedure described in this paper. The advantage of this model lies on the ability to mimic the human thinking and reasoning. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

Forecasting of Turkey's net electricity energy consumption on sectoral bases

Hamzaçebi C.

Article | 2007 | Energy Policy35 ( 3 ) , pp.2009 - 2016

In this study forecast of Turkey's net electricity energy consumption on sectoral basis until 2020 is explored. Artificial neural networks (ANN) is preferred as forecasting tool. The reasons behind choosing ANN are the ability of ANN to forecast future values of more than one variable at the same time and to model the nonlinear relation in the data structure. Founded forecast results by ANN are compared with official forecasts. © 2006.

Assessment of small hydropower (SHP) development in Turkey: Laws, regulations and EU policy perspective

Kucukali S. | Baris K.

Article | 2009 | Energy Policy37 ( 10 ) , pp.3872 - 3879

This paper aims to evaluate the development of small hydropower (SHP) in Turkey and discusses the current situation of SHP plants in terms of government policy, economical aspects and environmental impacts taking EU policy into account. The laws published in recent years in Turkey succeeded in promoting the utilization of renewable energy for electricity generation, but it is considered that those laws are not fully compatible with EU policy. After the publication of Renewable Energy Law (Law No. 5346) there occurred a boost in SHP project along with hydropower development. Thus, the hydropower potential of Turkey increased 15% and . . .the construction of hydropower plants also increased by a factor of four in 2007 as compared to 2006. Investment and operating costs are in favor of SHP development in Turkey as having the lowest costs among European countries (300-1000 €/kW as investment cost and 1 €cent/kWh as operating cost). Turkish governments have taken precautions for environmental issues resulted from renewable energy utilization but these are obviously not adequate. It is concluded that more attention must be paid on environmental issues and monitoring of the facilities must be enabled with further laws or regulations. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

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