The effects of boric acid-induced oxidative stress on antioxidant enzymes and survivorship in Galleria mellonella

Hyršl, Pavel | Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2007 | Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology66 ( 1 ) , pp.23 - 31

Larvae of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), were reared from first instar on a diet supplemented with 156, 620, 1,250, or 2,500 ppm boric acid (BA). The content of malondialdehyde (MDA, an oxidative stress indicator), and activities of the antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] were determined in the fat body and hemolymph in the 7th instar larvae and newly emerged pupae. Relative to control larvae, MDA was significantly increased in larval hemolymph, larval and pupal fat body, but decreased in the pupal hemolymph. Insects reared on di . . .ets with 156-and 620-ppm BA doses yielded increased SOD activity but 1,250- and 2,500-ppm doses resulted in decreased SOD activity in larval hemolymph. SOD activity was significantly increased but CAT was decreased in the larval fat body. High dietary BA treatments led to significantly decreased GST activity. However, they increased GPx activity in larval hemolymph. Dietary BA also affected larval survival. The 1,250- and 2,500-ppm concentrations led to significantly increased larval and pupal mortality and prolonged development. In contrast, the lowest BA concentration increased longevity and shortened development. We infer that BA toxicity is related, at least in part, to oxidative stress management. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc Daha fazlası Daha az

Exposure to streptomycin alters oxidative and antioxidative response in larval midgut tissues of Galleria mellonella

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Kalender, Yusuf

Article | 2009 | Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology94 ( 02.Mar ) , pp.112 - 118

Although antibiotics have different molecular modes of actions, increasing evidence for their secondary effects suggests that they disturb cellular homeostasis by generating free radical intermediates that trigger lipid peroxidation, which leads to oxidative stress. Streptomycin is an antibiotic insecticide used to control pest insects and microbial diseases of agricultural crops. We investigated the biochemical basis for pro-oxidative effects of streptomycin in the midgut tissues of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) seventh-instar larvae by measuring content of the oxidative stress indicator, malondialdehyde (MDA), and ant . . .ioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and transaminases [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] activities. The insects were reared from first-instar larvae on artificial diets containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0 g streptomycin per 100 g of diets. The supplementation of streptomycin at high concentrations to the diets caused oxidative stress as evidenced by the elevation of MDA content, SOD and GPx activities, accompanied by the concurrent depletion of CAT and GST activities. The streptomycin-induced oxidative stress was also accompanied by decreases of transaminases activities in midgut tissues. We found a significant negative correlation of MDA contents with GST activities in the larval midgut tissues. These results suggest that exposure to dietary streptomycin resulted in oxidative stress which could impact midgut digestive physiology at the expense of impairment of antioxidant and transaminases enzymes in G. mellonella larvae. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

Effects of eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors on selected oxidative stress biomarkers in the midgut of galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larvae

Büyükgüzel, Ender

Article | 2014 | Journal of Entomological Science49 ( 2 ) , pp.144 - 155

Eicosandoids, or icosanoids, are signaling compounds created by the oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acids. They control many complex physiological and immunological functions in vertebrate and invertebrate animals. This study tested the hypothesis that eicosanoids act in insect antioxidant defense. The effects of 3 eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs) - dexamethasone, esculetin, and phenidone - on the oxidative stress indicator, malondialdehyde (MDA), and the detoxification enzyme, glutathione S-transferase (GST), was examined in the midgut of larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L). The larvae were reared on artif . . .icial diets supplemented with 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0% of the EBIs. Esculetin, which is a lipoxygenase inhibitor, significantly increased MDA content; whereas, GST activity was significantly increased at only the highest concentration tested. Dexamethasone, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor, significantly increased MDA content and GST activity at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0%. Phenidone, a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, increased MDA content, whereas the 0.01 and 0.1% concentrations of phenidone significantly increased GST activity. Our results indicate that antioxidative responses are, at least in part, controlled by a physiological system that includes eicosanoid biosynthesis Daha fazlası Daha az

Evidence of oxidative and antioxidative responses by Galleria mellonella larvae to malathion

Büyükgüzel, Ender

Article | 2009 | Journal of Economic Entomology102 ( 1 ) , pp.152 - 159

Antioxidant defense components protect insects by scavenging reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative stress. I therefore investigated the effects of an organophosphorous insecticide, malathion, on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities as well as glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content as oxidative stress biomarkers in whole body of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), larvae. Subcellular fractionation also was assayed for SOD and AChE enzymes to assess subcellular toxicity of malathion in this wax moth. The newly hatched larvae were reared on diets containing 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, a . . .nd 10 ppm malathion. The diet with lowest concentration of malathion did not significantly influence MDA content and AChE activity. Malathion at 1.0 ppm significantly resulted in increased MDA content and decreased AChE activity. I observed a significant increase in SOD activity, whereas total GSH content and AChE activity were significantly lower for 1.0 ppm malathion than the control groups. Highest concentration of dietary malathion significantly decreased SOD and AChE activities, and GSH content in whole body of the insect. Subcellular fractionations showed that activities of microsomal and soluble AChE, and microsomal SOD for high concentrations of malathion (1.0 and 10 ppm) were significantly lower than control. Soluble SOD activities were significantly increased by low malathion concentrations, whereas only the highest malathion concentration resulted in significantly decreased SOD activity. I infer that induction of antioxidant defense mechanisms in response to increased oxidative stress may be a result of AChE inhibition by malathion in G. mellonella larvae. © 2009 Entomological Society of America Daha fazlası Daha az

Biochemical stress indicators of greater wax moth exposure to organophosphorus insecticides

İçen, Ender | Armutçu, Ferah | Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Gürel, Ahmet

Article | 2005 | Journal of Economic Entomology98 ( 2 ) , pp.358 - 366

Although acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the primary target of organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), increasing evidence regarding their secondary effects suggests that OPs disturb homeostasis of insects by generating free radical intermediates that trigger lipid peroxidation. We therefore investigated alterations in lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, in conjunction with AChE activity as biochemical stress indicators in greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) larvae for OPs methyl parathion (MP) and ethyl parathion (EP). The . . .effects of MP and EP were first investigated by rearing the young larvae on an artificial diet containing 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ppm of each insecticide. Second, the mature larvae were injected with 0.05, 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 ng of insecticides for determining the changes in biochemical stress responses. The diet with lowest level of MP significantly decreased the activities of all measured enzymes, whereas it increased MDA content. However ALT and AST were significantly higher in the larvae reared with the diet with high levels of MP than in control larvae. All tested levels of MP resulted in a decrease in AChE activity. The lowest level of EP in diet (0.01 ppm) significantly increased ALT activity, whereas it reduced that of AChE. This insecticide at 0.1 ppm resulted in reduced AST activity, but 1 ppm in diet elevated AST activity and MDA content. EP at 0.1 ppm and higher levels in the diet reduced ALT activity. All dietary EP levels significantly decreased AChE activity. ALT, AST, and AChE were lower in larvae fed with the diet containing 100 ppm ethyl parathion compared with larvae on control diet. MP at 50 ng per larva increased ALT and AST activities from 35.42 ± 0.74 and 26.34 ± 0.83 to 203.57 ± 1.09, and 122.90 ± 1.21 U/g, respectively, when the mature larvae were injected. All injected doses of EP dramatically reduced both ALT and AST activities, but only the lowest and highest levels of this insecticide decreased AChE activity. The lowest level of this insecticide also significantly increased MDA content in larvae. High levels of both insecticides increased MDA content. We observed a significant higher increase in MDA content in the larvae reared with 10 ppm EP (102.16 ± 1.57 nmol/g protein) than the control group (30.28 ± 1.42 nmol/g protein). These results suggest that OPs caused the metabolic and synaptic dysfunctions in greater wax moth and alter its biochemical physiology in response to oxidative stress. © 2005 Entomological Society of America Daha fazlası Daha az

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