Bulunan: 64 Adet 0.001 sn
Koleksiyon [20]
Tam Metin [2]
Yayın Türü [5]
Yazar [20]
Yayın Yılı [19]
Konu Başlıkları [20]
Yayıncı [20]
Yayın Dili [2]
Dergi Adı [20]
Karyotogy of some bat species (Chiroptera : Rhinotophidae, Molossidae) from Turkey

Karataş, Ahmet | Sözen, Mustafa | Matur, Ferhat

Makale | 2006 | MAMMALIAN BIOLOGY71 ( 3 ) , pp.159 - 163

WOS: 000238250600004

Galleria mellonella (L.) survivorship, development and protein content in response to dietary antibiotics

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Kalender, Yusuf

Makale | 2008 | Journal of Entomological Science43 ( 1 ) , pp.27 - 40

Antibiotics are routinely incorporated in insect culture media. Although culturing insects on diets containing antibiotics is a decades-old practice, the antibiotics can exert deleterious effects on the insects. Diets amended with penicillin, streptomycin, fluconazole or griseofulvin were evaluated as to their impact on survivorship, development, wet weight, and adult total protein content of Galleria mellonella (L.). Insects were reared from neonates to adults on artificial diets containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0 g of the antibiotics (per 100 g diet). Dose- and stage-dependent variations in both biological and biochemical paramete . . .rs occurred. Penicillin at high concentrations significantly increased the wet weight of the insect, whereas low dietary fluconazole, griseofulvin and streptomycin concentrations significantly increased wet weight and high concentrations decreased wet weight. Dietary antibiotic treatment resulted in significantly decreased survivorship and increased developmental time of larvae. The diet amended with 1.0 g of either penicillin or streptomycin decreased pupation and adult emergence by 50%. Larvae reared on the diets supplemented with the highest concentrations of fluconazole and griseofulvin produced as low as 20% of adults. The 0.1 g fluconazole treatment prolonged adult development by 8 d. High dietary griseofulvin concentrations markedly decreased total protein content of adults. Other antibiotics also resulted in decreased total protein content in adults depending on their types and concentrations. Slightly enhanced survivorship, shortened development and increased total protein content were observed with some sublethal doses of antibiotics. It appears that dietary antibiotic impact on insect biological parameters is exerted via their deteriorative effects on biochemical factors in relation to alterations in wet weight. Low concentrations of these antibiotics can be used in artificial rearing of G. mellonella Daha fazlası Daha az

Evidence of oxidative and antioxidative responses by Galleria mellonella larvae to malathion

Büyükgüzel, Ender

Makale | 2009 | Journal of Economic Entomology102 ( 1 ) , pp.152 - 159

Antioxidant defense components protect insects by scavenging reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative stress. I therefore investigated the effects of an organophosphorous insecticide, malathion, on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities as well as glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content as oxidative stress biomarkers in whole body of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), larvae. Subcellular fractionation also was assayed for SOD and AChE enzymes to assess subcellular toxicity of malathion in this wax moth. The newly hatched larvae were reared on diets containing 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, a . . .nd 10 ppm malathion. The diet with lowest concentration of malathion did not significantly influence MDA content and AChE activity. Malathion at 1.0 ppm significantly resulted in increased MDA content and decreased AChE activity. I observed a significant increase in SOD activity, whereas total GSH content and AChE activity were significantly lower for 1.0 ppm malathion than the control groups. Highest concentration of dietary malathion significantly decreased SOD and AChE activities, and GSH content in whole body of the insect. Subcellular fractionations showed that activities of microsomal and soluble AChE, and microsomal SOD for high concentrations of malathion (1.0 and 10 ppm) were significantly lower than control. Soluble SOD activities were significantly increased by low malathion concentrations, whereas only the highest malathion concentration resulted in significantly decreased SOD activity. I infer that induction of antioxidant defense mechanisms in response to increased oxidative stress may be a result of AChE inhibition by malathion in G. mellonella larvae. © 2009 Entomological Society of America Daha fazlası Daha az

Karyotype of Taphozous nudiventris cretzschmar, 1830 (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Turkey

Karataş, Ahmet | Sözen, Mustafa

Makale | 2002 | Israel Journal of Zoology48 ( 4 ) , pp.359 - 360

[No abstract available]

Malathion-induced oxidative stress in a parasitoid wasp: Effect on adult emergence, longevity, fecundity, and oxidative and antioxidative response of Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Makale | 2006 | Journal of Economic Entomology99 ( 4 ) , pp.1225 - 1234

Effects of an organophosphorus insecticide, malathion, on survivorship and lipid peroxidation of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), pupae were investigated by rearing the newly hatched larvae on an artificial diet containing 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ppm of the insecticide. As bioindicators of long-term physiological stress responses, the adult emergence rate, longevity, and fecundity associated with lipid peroxidation level and antioxidant enzyme activity in the endoparasitoid Pimpla turionellae (L.) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) were determined by rearing the parasitoid on a factitious host, G. mellonella pupae treated . . . with malathion. At 100 ppm, malathion significantly decreased pupation rate of G. mellonella larvae and the rate of adult emergence of the parasitoid from these pupae. This concentration resulted in a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) in both the host and the parasitoid. Malathion at 1 and 10 ppm significantly increased pupation rate and lipid peroxidation level of G. mellonella pupae. The adult emergence rate of P. turionellae was significantly decreased from 63.7 to 20% by these concentrations, whereas MDA content was increased by two- and three-fold, respectively, compared with the control (45.3 ± 3.2 nmol/g protein). The longevity of adults was significantly extended from 52.5 ± 5.7 to 75.7 ± 6.3 d when the parasitoids emerged from host pupae exposed with 0.1 ppm malathion. At low concentrations (0.01 and 0.1 ppm), malathion significantly increased the number of eggs laid per female per day. However, the lowest concentration (0.01 ppm) had no significant effect on hatchability, whereas 0.1 ppm of the insecticide resulted in significant decrease in egg hatch compared with the control. A significant increase in total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity for low concentrations of malathion (0.01-1 ppm) was found compared with the control. There was a significant positive correlation of SOD activities with adult longevity and fecundity. This study suggested that malathion-induced oxidative stress was causative factor in the deterioration of biological fitness and that increased SOD activities may have resulted in decreased oxidative damage, which retarded the rate of deteriorative physiological changes in P. turionellae in response to sublethal doses of malathion. © 2006 Entomological Society of America Daha fazlası Daha az

Effects of some antimicrobial agents on the total protein content of the endoparasitoid Pimpla turionellae L. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Makale | 2002 | Turkish Journal of Zoology26 ( 1 ) , pp.101 - 109

Endoparazitoid zarkanatlı türü, Pimpla turionellae L., kimyasal yapısı bilinen sentetik besin ortamlarında aseptik şartlarda beslenerek farklı yapı ve etkiye sahip olan onüç antimikrobiyal ajanın böceğin pup evresindeki total protein miktarına etkileri incelendi. Bu etkiler antimikrobiyal ajanın üeşidine ve besindeki miktarına göre değişmektedir. Pupların total protein miktarı penisillin, streptomisin, rifampisin, tetrasiklin hidroklorür, linkomisin hidroklorür, metil p-hidroksibenzoat, sikloheksimid, ve sodyum benzoat tarafından önemli derecede artırılırken nistatin ise bu miktarı azaltmıştır.Diğer denenen ajanlar ise böceğin prote . . .in miktarına önemli bir etki yapmamıştır.Antimikrobiyal ajanlar aynı zamanda besinsel miktarlarına baÛlı olarak böceğin yaş vucut ağırlığı üzerinde etkili olmußtur. Bu ajanların bazı miktarlarını içeren besinler ile beslenen larvaların oluşturduğu pupların kontrol besinindekilere göre daha düşük vucut ağırlığına sahip oldukları ancak bunların daha fazla protein içerdikleri tespit edilmiştir. Nistatinin 45 mg'ının ilave edildiği besin ise pupların yaş ağırlığında ve bunların protein miktarında önemli bir azalmaya neden olmuştur. The effects of thirteen antimicrobial agents that have different structures and modes of action on the total protein content of pupae of the hymenopterous endoparasitoid, Pimpla turionellae L., were investigated by rearing the larvae aseptically on chemically defined synthetic diets. These effects varied according to the their kind and dietary levels. The protein content of the pupae was significantly increased by penicillin, streptomycin, rifampicin, tetracycline hydrochloride, lincomycin hydrochloride, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, cycloheximide and sodium benzoate, while it was decreased by nystatin. The other tested antimicrobial agents had no significant effects on the total protein content of the insect. Depending on dietary levels, most of the tested agents also had an effect on the body wet weight of the insect. It was demonstrated that pupae from larvae fed on diets with some levels of tested antimicrobial agents had a lower body wet weight but contained more protein content than those of the control diet. The diet with 45 mg of nystatin caused a significant decrease in the wet weight of the pupae and their protein content Daha fazlası Daha az

Biochemical stress indicators of greater wax moth exposure to organophosphorus insecticides

İçen, Ender | Armutçu, Ferah | Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Gürel, Ahmet

Makale | 2005 | Journal of Economic Entomology98 ( 2 ) , pp.358 - 366

Although acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the primary target of organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), increasing evidence regarding their secondary effects suggests that OPs disturb homeostasis of insects by generating free radical intermediates that trigger lipid peroxidation. We therefore investigated alterations in lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, in conjunction with AChE activity as biochemical stress indicators in greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) larvae for OPs methyl parathion (MP) and ethyl parathion (EP). The . . .effects of MP and EP were first investigated by rearing the young larvae on an artificial diet containing 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ppm of each insecticide. Second, the mature larvae were injected with 0.05, 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 ng of insecticides for determining the changes in biochemical stress responses. The diet with lowest level of MP significantly decreased the activities of all measured enzymes, whereas it increased MDA content. However ALT and AST were significantly higher in the larvae reared with the diet with high levels of MP than in control larvae. All tested levels of MP resulted in a decrease in AChE activity. The lowest level of EP in diet (0.01 ppm) significantly increased ALT activity, whereas it reduced that of AChE. This insecticide at 0.1 ppm resulted in reduced AST activity, but 1 ppm in diet elevated AST activity and MDA content. EP at 0.1 ppm and higher levels in the diet reduced ALT activity. All dietary EP levels significantly decreased AChE activity. ALT, AST, and AChE were lower in larvae fed with the diet containing 100 ppm ethyl parathion compared with larvae on control diet. MP at 50 ng per larva increased ALT and AST activities from 35.42 ± 0.74 and 26.34 ± 0.83 to 203.57 ± 1.09, and 122.90 ± 1.21 U/g, respectively, when the mature larvae were injected. All injected doses of EP dramatically reduced both ALT and AST activities, but only the lowest and highest levels of this insecticide decreased AChE activity. The lowest level of this insecticide also significantly increased MDA content in larvae. High levels of both insecticides increased MDA content. We observed a significant higher increase in MDA content in the larvae reared with 10 ppm EP (102.16 ± 1.57 nmol/g protein) than the control group (30.28 ± 1.42 nmol/g protein). These results suggest that OPs caused the metabolic and synaptic dysfunctions in greater wax moth and alter its biochemical physiology in response to oxidative stress. © 2005 Entomological Society of America Daha fazlası Daha az

Eicosanoids mediate hemolymph oxidative and antioxidative response in larvae of Galleria mellonella L.

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Hyršl, Pavel | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Makale | 2010 | Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology156 ( 2 ) , pp.176 - 183

Antioxidant enzymes play a major role in the defense against pro-oxidative effects of xenobiotics and pro-oxidant plant allelochemicals in insects. We posed the hypothesis that eicosanoids also mediate antioxidant enzymatic defense reactions to pro-oxidant challenge. To test this idea, we reared first-instar larvae of Galleria mellonella (L.) with the lypoxygenase inhibitor, esculetin (0.001%), the phospholipase A2 inhibitor, dexamethasone (0.001%) and the dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, phenidone (0.1%) to seventh-instars. Newly ecdysed seventh-instars were then fed on artificial diet containing 0.05% xanthotoxin . . . (XA) for 2 days. Treating seventh-instar larvae of G. mellonella with XA induced lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation as evident from the increased content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls respectively, and antioxidative enzymatic response in a dose-dependent manner. High dietary XA concentrations (0.005 and 0.1%) were associated with increasing MDA and carbonyl content (by 3-fold) and antioxidant enzyme activities, superoxide dismutase (SOD) (by 3-fold) and catalase (CAT) (by 4-fold), and glutathione-dependent enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST) (by 15-fold) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (by 7-fold). Relative to control, eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs) esculetin, dexamethasone and phenidone also resulted in impaired MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. However, carbonyl content did not differ between control- and EBIs-feeding larvae. Finally, MDA and carbonyl content, and antioxidant enzymes SOD, GST and GPx activities exhibited an incremental increase while CAT activity was decreased in the experimental larvae that had been reared on media amended with esculetin, dexamethasone and phenidone and then challenged with our standard XA challenge dose. Two of the markers indicated that significantly higher levels of oxidative stress were produced in the hemolymph tissue of larvae fed diets supplemented with EBIs and then challenged with XA. This oxidative stress was associated with elicited antioxidative responses by increasing SOD, GST and GPx and decreasing CAT activities in hemolymph. We infer from these findings that eicosanoids mediate insect antioxidant enzymatic responses to dietary pro-oxidants. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

Calli ultrastructure of globularia trichosantha ssp trichosanthale

Atar, Havva | Çölgeçen, Hatice | Akgül, Gencay

Makale | 2017 | PERIODICUM BIOLOGORUM119 ( 3 ) , pp.209 - 218

Background and Purpose: This study aimed to produce calli with explants of aseptic seedlings after germination of G. trichosantha ssp. trichosantha seeds by plant tissue culture method and to examine the ultrastructure of the produced calli with electron microscope preparation. Materials and Methods: Seeds of G. trichosantha ssp. trichosantha were germinated in hormone-free Murashige and Skoog in in vitro conditions. Hypocotyl, epicotyl, cotyledon, young primer leaf, apical meristem and root explants taken from 30-day aseptic seedlings were transferred to Murashige and Skoog media for callus production which contained varying concen . . .trations of 6-benzilamynopurine, indole acetic acid and 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Results: Two types of calli were determined: Yellow calli (Type 1) and Black calli (Type 2) with darkened colour and appearance that have not lost their development properties. Following lead staining, thin sections were examined by transmission electron microscope. The best callus production occurred at the Murashige and Skoog medium containing indole acetic acid and 6-benzilamynopurine and in root explants. The cells of Type 1 calli were spherical and large. The cells contained usually one nucleus and nucleolus. Also the cells contained a very large vacuole, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids. Deformed cells and spherical cells were determined in Type 2 calli. The cells were observed to have smaller vacoules and higher numbers of mitochondria different from Type 1 calli. Type 1 and Type 2 calli showed bulging mitochondrial cristae. Electrondense droplets were observed in vacuoles of both Type 1 and Type 2 calli Daha fazlası Daha az

Sphagnum centrale and other remarkable bryophyte records from the kaçkar mountains (Northern Turkey)

Abay, Gökhan | Uyar, Güray | Keçeli, Tamer | Çetin, Barbaros

Makale | 2009 | Cryptogamie, Bryologie30 ( 3 ) , pp.399 - 407

Data on the occurrence of some rare bryophyte taxa in the Kaçkar Mountains in Turkey are presented. Besides, Sphagnum centrale C.E.O.Jensen is first reported from Turkey, extending its distribution range to the Caucasus.

A review of bioinsecticidal activity of solanaceae alkaloids

Chowanski, Szymon | Adamski, Zbigniew | Marciniak, Pawel | Rosiński, Grzegorz | Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Falabella, Patrizia | Scrano, Laura | Ventrella, Emanuela | Lelario, Filomena | Bufo, Sabino A.

Makale | 2016 | Toxins8 ( 3 ) , pp.399 - 407

Only a small percentage of insect species are pests. However, pest species cause significant losses in agricultural and forest crops, and many are vectors of diseases. Currently, many scientists are focused on developing new tools to control insect populations, including secondary plant metabolites, e.g., alkaloids, glycoalkaloids, terpenoids, organic acids and alcohols, which show promise for use in plant protection. These compounds can affect insects at all levels of biological organization, but their action generally disturbs cellular and physiological processes, e.g., by altering redox balance, hormonal regulation, neuronal sign . . .alization or reproduction in exposed individuals. Secondary plant metabolites cause toxic effects that can be observed at both lethal and sublethal levels, but the most important effect is repellence. Plants from the Solanaceae family, which contains numerous economically and ecologically important species, produce various substances that affect insects belonging to most orders, particularly herbivorous insects and other pests. Many compounds possess insecticidal properties, but they are also classified as molluscides, acaricides, nematocides, fungicides and bactericides. In this paper, we present data on the sublethal and lethal toxicity caused by pure metabolites and crude extracts obtained from Solanaceae plants. Pure substances as well as water and/or alcohol extracts cause lethal and sublethal effects in insects, which is important from the economical point of view. We discuss the results of our study and their relevance to plant protection and management Daha fazlası Daha az

Mosses as indicators of atmospheric heavy metal deposition around a coal-fired power plant in Turkey

Uyar, Güray | Ören, Muhammet | Yıldırım, Yılmaz | İnce, Mahir

Makale | 2007 | Fresenius Environmental Bulletin16 ( 2 ) , pp.182 - 192

This study was carried out from May 2003 to October 2004 in the vicinity of Çatalagzi coal-fired power plant (CATES) located in Zonguldak, North-West Turkey, in order to investigate atmospheric heavy metal depositions by sampling and analysing Pleurocarp mosses as biomonitoring plants. Initially, ISC-ST (Industrial Source Complex-Short Term) dispersion models were used to determine theoretically the most polluted sites of CATES. After the modelling, sampling was performed in these theoretically determined grids. Samples were analyzed using graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after wet digestion. In the region, the . . .general order of heavy metal content in samples of mosses was determined to be as follows: Fe>Pb>Ni>Cr>Cu>Co>As. Background mean levels of the metals studied, except Cu, were determined and found to be higher than that of European background. The results are also presented in the form of thematic maps using the Geographic Information System (GIS). © by PSP 2007 Daha fazlası Daha az

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