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DNA gyrase inhibitors: Novobiocin enhances the survival of Pimpla turionellae (Hym., Ichneumonidae) larvae reared on an artificial diet but other antibiotics do not

Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2001 | Journal of Applied Entomology125 ( 09.Oct ) , pp.583 - 587

Effects of novobiocin, nalidixic and oxolinic acids, which are potent antibacterial agents, on the survival and development of the hymenopterous endoparasitoid, Pimpla turionellae L. (Ichneumonidae) were investigated alone by rearing the larvae aseptically on chemically defined synthetic diets. Survival of the fifth instar larvae was not significantly affected by diets with different levels of antibiotics tested. A diet containing the lowest level of novobiocin significantly increased yields of pupae and adults. This level also significantly shortened the developmental time for fifth instar but had no significant effect on complete . . .development of the larvae up to adult emergence. Oxolinic acid at the lowest level did not affect the survival but prolonged development of the insect. In general, the rate of development was significantly increased and the survival was decreased with high levels of the antibiotics. However, nalidixic acid caused a striking decrease in the survival at all tested levels. These results suggest that novobiocin and to a lesser extent oxolinic acid are compatible for addition to artificial diet for rearing P. turionellae, which is an important parasitoid used in biological control Daha fazlası Daha az

Calli ultrastructure of globularia trichosantha ssp trichosanthale

Atar, Havva | Çölgeçen, Hatice | Akgül, Gencay

Article | 2017 | PERIODICUM BIOLOGORUM119 ( 3 ) , pp.209 - 218

Background and Purpose: This study aimed to produce calli with explants of aseptic seedlings after germination of G. trichosantha ssp. trichosantha seeds by plant tissue culture method and to examine the ultrastructure of the produced calli with electron microscope preparation. Materials and Methods: Seeds of G. trichosantha ssp. trichosantha were germinated in hormone-free Murashige and Skoog in in vitro conditions. Hypocotyl, epicotyl, cotyledon, young primer leaf, apical meristem and root explants taken from 30-day aseptic seedlings were transferred to Murashige and Skoog media for callus production which contained varying concen . . .trations of 6-benzilamynopurine, indole acetic acid and 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Results: Two types of calli were determined: Yellow calli (Type 1) and Black calli (Type 2) with darkened colour and appearance that have not lost their development properties. Following lead staining, thin sections were examined by transmission electron microscope. The best callus production occurred at the Murashige and Skoog medium containing indole acetic acid and 6-benzilamynopurine and in root explants. The cells of Type 1 calli were spherical and large. The cells contained usually one nucleus and nucleolus. Also the cells contained a very large vacuole, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids. Deformed cells and spherical cells were determined in Type 2 calli. The cells were observed to have smaller vacoules and higher numbers of mitochondria different from Type 1 calli. Type 1 and Type 2 calli showed bulging mitochondrial cristae. Electrondense droplets were observed in vacuoles of both Type 1 and Type 2 calli Daha fazlası Daha az

The bryophyte flora of Sinop Peninsula (Turkey)

Söylemez, Burçin | Ören, Muhammet | Ursavaş, Serhat | Keçeli, Tamer

Article | 2017 | Biological Diversity and Conservation10 ( 3 ) , pp.120 - 129

This study presents knowledge about bryophytes of Sinop peninsula which one of the Key Biodiversity Areas (KBA). Research materials were collected from 60 different sites between September 2014-June 2016. As a result of the evaluation of 614 samples 25 species of 17 genera belonging to 17 families from Marchantiophyta (Liverworts), 130 species of 74 genera belonging to 28 families from Bryophyta (mosses), 2 species of 2 genera belonging to 2 families from Anthocerotophyta (Hornworts). In total, 157 specific and infraspecific taxa belonging to 47 families and 93 genera were identified. Among these, 95 taxa are new to Sinop province a . . .nd 26 taxa are new to A3 square according to Henderson (1961) grid system. Bu çalışma Önemli Doğa Alanları (ÖDA)’ndan biri olan Sinop Yarımadası’nın briyofitleri hakkında bilgi sunmaktadır. Araştırma materyali Eylül 2014-Haziran 2016 tarihleri arasında 60 farklı notadan toplanmıştır. 614 örneğin değerlendirilmesi sonucunda Machantiophyta’dan (Ciğerotları) 17 familya ve 17 cinse ait 25, Bryophyta’dan (Karayosunları) 28 familya ve 74 cinse ait 130, Anthocerotophyta’dan (Boynuzotları) 2 familya ve 2 cinse ait 2 tür tespit edilmiştir. Toplamda 47 familya ve 93 cinse ait, tür ve tür altı düzeyde 157 takson tespit edilmiştir. Bunlar arasından 95 tanesi Sinop ili için, 26 tanesi ise Henderson (1961) kareleme sistemine göre A3 karesi için yenidir Daha fazlası Daha az

Sphagnum centrale and other remarkable bryophyte records from the kaçkar mountains (Northern Turkey)

Abay, Gökhan | Uyar, Güray | Keçeli, Tamer | Çetin, Barbaros

Article | 2009 | Cryptogamie, Bryologie30 ( 3 ) , pp.399 - 407

Data on the occurrence of some rare bryophyte taxa in the Kaçkar Mountains in Turkey are presented. Besides, Sphagnum centrale C.E.O.Jensen is first reported from Turkey, extending its distribution range to the Caucasus.

Galleria mellonella (L.) survivorship, development and protein content in response to dietary antibiotics

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Kalender, Yusuf

Article | 2008 | Journal of Entomological Science43 ( 1 ) , pp.27 - 40

Antibiotics are routinely incorporated in insect culture media. Although culturing insects on diets containing antibiotics is a decades-old practice, the antibiotics can exert deleterious effects on the insects. Diets amended with penicillin, streptomycin, fluconazole or griseofulvin were evaluated as to their impact on survivorship, development, wet weight, and adult total protein content of Galleria mellonella (L.). Insects were reared from neonates to adults on artificial diets containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0 g of the antibiotics (per 100 g diet). Dose- and stage-dependent variations in both biological and biochemical paramete . . .rs occurred. Penicillin at high concentrations significantly increased the wet weight of the insect, whereas low dietary fluconazole, griseofulvin and streptomycin concentrations significantly increased wet weight and high concentrations decreased wet weight. Dietary antibiotic treatment resulted in significantly decreased survivorship and increased developmental time of larvae. The diet amended with 1.0 g of either penicillin or streptomycin decreased pupation and adult emergence by 50%. Larvae reared on the diets supplemented with the highest concentrations of fluconazole and griseofulvin produced as low as 20% of adults. The 0.1 g fluconazole treatment prolonged adult development by 8 d. High dietary griseofulvin concentrations markedly decreased total protein content of adults. Other antibiotics also resulted in decreased total protein content in adults depending on their types and concentrations. Slightly enhanced survivorship, shortened development and increased total protein content were observed with some sublethal doses of antibiotics. It appears that dietary antibiotic impact on insect biological parameters is exerted via their deteriorative effects on biochemical factors in relation to alterations in wet weight. Low concentrations of these antibiotics can be used in artificial rearing of G. mellonella Daha fazlası Daha az

Bazı böcek türlerinde kimyasal iletişimi sağlayan proteinlerin moleküler yapıları ve biyokimyasal

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Tunaz, Hasan | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Other | 2006 | Türk Biyokimya Dergisi31 ( 4 ) , pp.194 - 206

Karasal ortamda yaşıyan hayvansal organizmaların koku alma duyuları (olfaktör sistem) uçucu hidrofobik molekülleri tespit ederek seçebilecek şekilde özelleşmiştir. Bu moleküllerin bazıları bitkisel kaynaklı uçucu bileşikler olup bazıları da hayvansal organizmalar tarafından salınan hidrofobik özellikte, hidrokarbon yapısında ve feromonlar olarak isimlendirilen koku molekülleridir. Böceklerin antenlerinin birincil görevi, karşı eşeyden salınan eşey feromonlarını, diğer fizyolojik ve davranışsal işlevleri gerçekleştiren semiokimyasalları ve bitkisel kaynaklı uçucu molekülleri içeren kokuları algılamaktır. Lepidoptera takımına ait güve . . . türlerinin antenlerinde trikoid ve bazikonik olarak isimlendirilen iki olfaktör duyu almacı (sensilyum) belirlenmiştir. Trikoid sensilyumlar feromonları algılamak üzere özelleşmiştir. Hidrofobik semiokimyasallar koku bağlayıcı proteinler tarafından bağlanarak çözünür forma dönüştürüldükten sonra sensillar lenfteki sulu ortamdan sinyal iletiminin başlatıldığı olfaktör reseptöre doğru taşınır. Bu proteinler altı adet sistein amino asidi taşıması nedeniyle benzer yapıda olup feromon bağlayan proteinler ve koku bağlayan proteinler olarak iki alt gruba ayrılır. Üç adet disülfür bağı oluşturan bu sistein amino asitleri proteinlerin üç boyutlu yapılarının kararlılığı için gereklidir. Feromonlar böcekler, diğer hayvan grupları ve insanlar tarafından kimyasal iletişimi sağlamak amacıyla salınan kokusuz, doğal moleküllerdir. Bu moleküller, dişi böceğin erkeğini kilometrelerce uzaktan bulabilmesini sağlayacak kadar etkindir. Feromon bağlayan proteinler Lepidoptera takımına ait güveler ve diğer böcek türlerindeki çeşitli duyu organlarında bulunan, düşük moleküler ağırlığa sahip (13-17 kDa) heliks yapısında proteinlerdir. Koku bağlayan proteinler ise kimyasal duyu sensilyumlarının lenf sıvısında oldukça yoğun olarak bulunan düşük moleküler ağırlıklı (15 kDa) çözünür proteinlerdir. Diğer birçok böcek türlerinin çeşitli duyu organlarında küçük bir protein grubu daha belirlenmiştir. Dört sistein amino asidi içermesinden dolayı feromon bağlayıcı protein ve koku bağlayıcı protein ile amino asit dizilişi bakımından daha az benzerlik gösteren bu proteinler, kimyasal duyu proteinleri olarak ayrı bir gruba dahil edilir. Bunlar koku ve tat gibi kimyasal sinyallerin algılanmasından sorumlu olup çeşitli kimyasalların hava ve su ortamından reseptörlere taşınmasında rol oynar. The olfactory systems of terrestial animals are designed to trap and sample volatile hydrophobic molecules. Some of these molecules are odorants, such as volatile plant compounds and pheromones emitted from the other organisms. Insect antennae have a primary function of detecting odors including sex pheromones and plant volatiles. In moths, the organs devoted to olfactory perception have been identified in antennae as the sensilla trichoid and basiconic, the former being tuned to the perception of pheromones. The hydrophobic semiochemicals are solublized by odorant-binding proteins and transported through an aqueous environment (sensillar lymph) to the olfactory receptors, where the signal transduction starts. These proteins, subdivided into pheromone-binding proteins and general odorant-binding proteins, all have a hallmark of six conserved cysteine residues forming three disulfide bridges which are essential for the rigidity of their three-dimensional structures. Pheromones are naturally occuring odorless chemical messenger compounds found in all insects, animals, and humans. They could attract male insects from a long distance exceeding kilometers. Pheromone-binding proteins are small helical proteins (13-17 kDa) present in several sensory organs from moth and other insect species. Odorant-binding proteins are small (15 kDa) soluble proteins, very concentrated in the lymph of chemosensory sensilla. A third class of small proteins has been identified in several sensorial organs from a number of insect orders. They have been separated into a group of chemosensory proteins, characterized by four cystein residues and with low sequence similarity to odorant-binding proteins. They are involved in chemoperception (olfaction and taste) and to play a role in chemical transport from air or water to chemosensitive receptors Daha fazlası Daha az

Dicranum flexicaule Brid. (Dicranaceae, Bryopsida), new to the moss flora of southwest Asia

Uyar, Güray | Abay, Gökhan | Çetin, Barbaros | Keçeli, Tamer

Article | 2008 | Cryptogamie, Bryologie29 ( 1 ) , pp.103 - 106

Dicranum flexicaule Brid. is recorded for the first time in southwest-Asia, from specimens collected in northeastern Turkey. A site description, illustrations and a few characters of the Turkish specimens different from the European ones are given, together with notes on its distribution and ecology in the studied area. © 2008 Adac. Tous droits réservés.

Gemifloksasinin Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) erginlerinin bazı biyolojik özelliklerine etkisi

Hız, Pınar | Erdem, Meltem | Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2016 | Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi22 ( 5 ) , pp.777 - 784

Büyük bal mumu güvesi Galleria mellonella L. mikrobiyal enfeksiyonların ve klinik ilaçların çalışılmasında memeli modellerine alternatif bir model olarak bilindiği gibi insektisit etkinliği çalışmalarında da model böcek olarak yaygın kullanıma sahiptir. Bu böceğin larvaları yapay besin ortamında beslenerek fluorokinolon sınıfından bir antibiyotik olan gemifloksasinin böceğin eşey oranı, dişi ve erkek ömür uzunluğu, yumurta verimi, açılma oranı gibi ergin biyolojik özellikleri üzerine etkisi laboratuvar şartlarında incelendi. Böceğin birinci evre larvaları %0.001, 0.01, 0.1 ve 1.0 oranında gemifloksasin içeren yapay besinler ile ergi . . .n evreye kadar beslendi. Gemifloksasinin denenen konsantrasyonlarını içeren besinler erkek ve dişi eşey oranı ile erginlerin ömür uzunluğu üzerinde etkili olmadığı halde yumurta verimini önemli derecede düşürdüğü belirlendi. Artan besinsel gemifloksasin konsantrasyonları ile ters orantılı olarak yumurta verimi ve açılma oranı azaldı. Kontrol besini ile yetiştirilen dişiler günde 134.46 adet yumurta üretirken gemifloksasinin yüksek miktarlarında dişiler 26.75 ve 53.5 yumurta bıraktılar. Yumurtaların açılma oranı da gemifloksasinin %0.01'lik konsantrasyonundan itibaren önemli derecede azalmış olup, en yüksek konsantrasyon bu oranı %53.71'e düşürdü. Bu çalışma erginlerin biyolojik özelliklerinin gemifloksasin tarafından önemli derecede etkilendiğini ve bu etkilerin antibiyotiğin konsantrasyonlarına bağımlı değişimler olduğunu gösterdi. Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. is most commonly used as model insects for studying insecticidal efficiency of chemicals as well as it has been known as an alternative model to mamalian model for studying microbial infections and clinical drugs. The effects of a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent, gemifloxacin, on sex ratio, male and female adult longevity, fecundity and hatchability of this insect were investigated by rearing the first instar larvae on artificial diets in the laboratory condition. The insect was reared from first-instar larvae to adult stage on an artificial diets containing gemifloxacin at 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0%. Gemifloxacin did not affect male and female sex ratio and adult longevity while it significantly decreased egg number. Fecundity and hatchability were significantly and inversely decreased by increasing gemifloxacin concentrations. The females reared from control diet produced 134.46 per day, whereas high concentrations of gemifloxacin decreased the egg number to 26.75 and 53.5. Hatchability was also significantly decreased by 0.01% and above concentrations of gemifloxacin whereas, the highest concentration of antibiotic lowered the hatchability to 53.71%. This study indicated sublethal effects of gemifloxacin are likely to have a significant impact on adult biological traits and these effects show concentration-dependent variation in biological traits of the insect Daha fazlası Daha az

Laboratory assays of the effects of oxfendazole on biological parameters of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Sugeçti, Serkan | Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2016 | Journal of Entomological Science51 ( 2 ) , pp.129 - 137

Galleria mellonella L. larvae were reared on a standard diet amended with varying concentrations (0, 0.0015, 0.015, 0.15, and 1.5%) of the benzimidazole-derivative antihelmintic drug oxfendazole. Survivorship, developmental times, longevity, fecundity, and fertility were monitored over the treatments. Relative to the untreated control, exposure to diet containing 1.5% oxfendazole significantly decreased survivorship in larval, pupal, and adult stages, prolonged the time to reach the adult stage, and reduced adult longevity. Oxfendazole at all concentrations significantly lowered egg production per female and decreased egg hatch. The . . .se results demonstrate that this antihelmintic may be explored as a candidate for insect pest control Daha fazlası Daha az

Boric acid-induced effects on protein profiles of Galleria mellonella hemolymph and fat body

Hyršl, Pavel | Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2008 | Acta Biologica Hungarica59 ( 3 ) , pp.281 - 288

The dietary effects of boric acid (BA) on the protein profiles of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), were investigated in hemolymph and fat body of final instar (VIIth) and pupae. The insects were reared from first-instar larvae on an artificial diets containing 156, 620, 1250 or 2500 ppm of BA. We detected many undetermined protein fractions (6.5-260 kDa) in addition to well-defined protein fractions such as lipophorins and storage proteins in the tissues by using sodium dodecyl-sulphate polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. A marked quantitative change in the 45 kDa protein fraction of the hemolymph was observed in . . . the VIIth instar larvae reared on 2500 ppm dietary BA. © 2008 Akadémiai Kiadó Daha fazlası Daha az

Penicillin-induced oxidative stress: Effects on antioxidative response of midgut tissues in instars of Galleria mellonella

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Kalender, Yusuf

Article | 2007 | Journal of Economic Entomology100 ( 5 ) , pp.1533 - 1541

Penicillin and other antibiotics are routinely incorporated in insect culture media. Although culturing insects in the presence of antibiotics is a decades-old practice, antibiotics can exert deleterious influences on insects. In this article, we test the hypothesis that one of the effects of dietary penicillin is to increase oxidative stress on insects. The effects of penicillin on midgut concentrations of the oxidative stress indicator malondialdehyde (MDA) and on midgut antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione S-transferase [GST], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) and transaminases (alanine amin . . .otransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) activities in greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), were investigated. The insects were reared from first instars on artificial diets containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, or 1.0 g penicillin per 100 g of diets. MDA content was significantly increased in the midgut tissues of each larval instar reared in the presence of high penicillin concentrations. Activities of antioxidant and transaminase enzymes did not show a consistent pattern with respect to penicillin concentrations in diet or age of larvae. Despite the increased penicillin-induced oxidative stress in gut tissue, antioxidant and transaminase enzymes did not correlate with oxidative stress level or between each other in larvae of other age stages except for the seventh instar. We found a significant negative correlation of MDA content with SOD and GST activities in seventh instars. SOD activity was also negatively correlated with CAT activity in seventh instars. These results suggest that exposure to dietary penicillin resulted in impaired enzymatic antioxidant defense capacity and metabolic functions in wax moth larval midgut tissues and that the resulting oxidative stress impacts midgut digestive physiology. © 2007 Entomological Society of America Daha fazlası Daha az

Biochemical stress indicators of greater wax moth exposure to organophosphorus insecticides

İçen, Ender | Armutçu, Ferah | Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Gürel, Ahmet

Article | 2005 | Journal of Economic Entomology98 ( 2 ) , pp.358 - 366

Although acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the primary target of organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), increasing evidence regarding their secondary effects suggests that OPs disturb homeostasis of insects by generating free radical intermediates that trigger lipid peroxidation. We therefore investigated alterations in lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, in conjunction with AChE activity as biochemical stress indicators in greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) larvae for OPs methyl parathion (MP) and ethyl parathion (EP). The . . .effects of MP and EP were first investigated by rearing the young larvae on an artificial diet containing 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ppm of each insecticide. Second, the mature larvae were injected with 0.05, 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 ng of insecticides for determining the changes in biochemical stress responses. The diet with lowest level of MP significantly decreased the activities of all measured enzymes, whereas it increased MDA content. However ALT and AST were significantly higher in the larvae reared with the diet with high levels of MP than in control larvae. All tested levels of MP resulted in a decrease in AChE activity. The lowest level of EP in diet (0.01 ppm) significantly increased ALT activity, whereas it reduced that of AChE. This insecticide at 0.1 ppm resulted in reduced AST activity, but 1 ppm in diet elevated AST activity and MDA content. EP at 0.1 ppm and higher levels in the diet reduced ALT activity. All dietary EP levels significantly decreased AChE activity. ALT, AST, and AChE were lower in larvae fed with the diet containing 100 ppm ethyl parathion compared with larvae on control diet. MP at 50 ng per larva increased ALT and AST activities from 35.42 ± 0.74 and 26.34 ± 0.83 to 203.57 ± 1.09, and 122.90 ± 1.21 U/g, respectively, when the mature larvae were injected. All injected doses of EP dramatically reduced both ALT and AST activities, but only the lowest and highest levels of this insecticide decreased AChE activity. The lowest level of this insecticide also significantly increased MDA content in larvae. High levels of both insecticides increased MDA content. We observed a significant higher increase in MDA content in the larvae reared with 10 ppm EP (102.16 ± 1.57 nmol/g protein) than the control group (30.28 ± 1.42 nmol/g protein). These results suggest that OPs caused the metabolic and synaptic dysfunctions in greater wax moth and alter its biochemical physiology in response to oxidative stress. © 2005 Entomological Society of America Daha fazlası Daha az

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