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The effect of neomycin on survival and development of Pimpla turionellae L. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) reared on a natural host

Harmancı, Cumhur | Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Büyükgüzel, Ender

Article | 2019 | Journal of Economic Entomology112 ( 3 ) , pp.1081 - 1088

Understanding the effects of diet on metabolic events is crucial for biological control programs of parasitoid insects. As bioindicators of long-term physiological stress: survivorship of fifth instar larvae, pupation, adult survival, and developmental time for stages of endoparasitoid Pimpla turionellae L. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) were investigated by rearing the parasitoid on the host, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) pupae were treated with neomycin. First instar larvae of G. mellonella were reared on artificial diets containing 0.005, 0.01, or 0.5 g neomycin (g/100 g of diet) until seventh instar larvae; the p . . .upae from these larvae were used as a host for rearing P. turionellae. In the control group, the pupae from larvae reared on artificial diets without neomycin were used as a host. Survivorship of fifth instar, pupal, and adult stages of P. turionellae L. reared on G. mellonella pupae as a host fed with different concentrations of neomycin were significantly decreased in comparison to the control group. Approximately eighty percent of P. turionellae L. pupae were produced from control host pupae, while other neomycin concentrations significantly decreased the pupation of the parasitoid. Pimpla turionellae L. larvae reared on control host pupae reached fifth instar in about 9.6 ± 0.61 d, while the larvae reared from a host pupae exposed to the highest antibiotic concentration completed their development to the fifth instar in about 7.4 d. These results showed that neomycin, and possibly its metabolites, contaminated P. turionellae L. larvae from a host and affected larval stages of the parasitoid. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America Daha fazlası Daha az

Karyotype of Taphozous nudiventris cretzschmar, 1830 (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Turkey

Karataş, Ahmet | Sözen, Mustafa

Article | 2002 | Israel Journal of Zoology48 ( 4 ) , pp.359 - 360

[No abstract available]

Exposure to streptomycin alters oxidative and antioxidative response in larval midgut tissues of Galleria mellonella

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Kalender, Yusuf

Article | 2009 | Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology94 ( 02.Mar ) , pp.112 - 118

Although antibiotics have different molecular modes of actions, increasing evidence for their secondary effects suggests that they disturb cellular homeostasis by generating free radical intermediates that trigger lipid peroxidation, which leads to oxidative stress. Streptomycin is an antibiotic insecticide used to control pest insects and microbial diseases of agricultural crops. We investigated the biochemical basis for pro-oxidative effects of streptomycin in the midgut tissues of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) seventh-instar larvae by measuring content of the oxidative stress indicator, malondialdehyde (MDA), and ant . . .ioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and transaminases [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] activities. The insects were reared from first-instar larvae on artificial diets containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0 g streptomycin per 100 g of diets. The supplementation of streptomycin at high concentrations to the diets caused oxidative stress as evidenced by the elevation of MDA content, SOD and GPx activities, accompanied by the concurrent depletion of CAT and GST activities. The streptomycin-induced oxidative stress was also accompanied by decreases of transaminases activities in midgut tissues. We found a significant negative correlation of MDA contents with GST activities in the larval midgut tissues. These results suggest that exposure to dietary streptomycin resulted in oxidative stress which could impact midgut digestive physiology at the expense of impairment of antioxidant and transaminases enzymes in G. mellonella larvae. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

The effect of anthelmintic triclabendazole on survival and development of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) L. reared on artificial diet.

Kılıç, Ali | Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Büyükgüzel, Ender

Article | 2015 | KAFKAS UNIVERSITESI VETERINER FAKULTESI DERGISI21 ( 6 ) , pp.841 - 847

The effect of triclabendazole, which is a benzimidazole anthelmintic, on the survival rate and developmental time in different stages of greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (L.) was investigated by rearing the larvae on the artificial diets. Triclabendazole was incorporated into diets at concentrations of 0.001, 0.01 or 0.1%. G. mellonella larvae was reared from first instar larvae to adult emergence on the artificial diets with different concentrations of triclabendazole. The survival rate in seventh instar (7th-instar) and adult stage were significantly lower at low concentrations of this anthelmintic agent (0.001 and 0.01 g per . . .100 g of diet) than the control, while there were no differences on pupation in comparison to control diet. However, the pupation and adult emergence were significantly lower at the highest dietary concentration of triclabendazole than control group but there were no differences on survival of 7th-instar larvae. The highest concentration of the anthelmintic agent (0.1 g/100 g diet) decreased pupation from 81.6 +/- 4.32% to 43.3 +/- 7.45%, adult emergence rate from 73.3 +/- 2.36 to 13.3 +/- 2.36. Triclabendazole at the highest concentration prolonged developmental time to 7th larval stage by 3.8 days reaching total 22.8 +/- 1.54 days. This diet containing 0.1% of triclabendazole significantly prolonged pupal developmental time from 24.6 +/- 1.24 days to 28.4 +/- 1.24 days, adult developmental time from 35.3 +/- 1.27 days to 42.0 +/- 1.62 days. This study is of importance in appreciation for usage of antihelmintic with different structure and mode of actions in the management of pest insects to reduce damage to environment and nontarget organisms Daha fazlası Daha az

Calli ultrastructure of globularia trichosantha ssp trichosanthale

Atar, Havva | Çölgeçen, Hatice | Akgül, Gencay

Article | 2017 | PERIODICUM BIOLOGORUM119 ( 3 ) , pp.209 - 218

Background and Purpose: This study aimed to produce calli with explants of aseptic seedlings after germination of G. trichosantha ssp. trichosantha seeds by plant tissue culture method and to examine the ultrastructure of the produced calli with electron microscope preparation. Materials and Methods: Seeds of G. trichosantha ssp. trichosantha were germinated in hormone-free Murashige and Skoog in in vitro conditions. Hypocotyl, epicotyl, cotyledon, young primer leaf, apical meristem and root explants taken from 30-day aseptic seedlings were transferred to Murashige and Skoog media for callus production which contained varying concen . . .trations of 6-benzilamynopurine, indole acetic acid and 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Results: Two types of calli were determined: Yellow calli (Type 1) and Black calli (Type 2) with darkened colour and appearance that have not lost their development properties. Following lead staining, thin sections were examined by transmission electron microscope. The best callus production occurred at the Murashige and Skoog medium containing indole acetic acid and 6-benzilamynopurine and in root explants. The cells of Type 1 calli were spherical and large. The cells contained usually one nucleus and nucleolus. Also the cells contained a very large vacuole, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids. Deformed cells and spherical cells were determined in Type 2 calli. The cells were observed to have smaller vacoules and higher numbers of mitochondria different from Type 1 calli. Type 1 and Type 2 calli showed bulging mitochondrial cristae. Electrondense droplets were observed in vacuoles of both Type 1 and Type 2 calli Daha fazlası Daha az

Antihelmintik triklabendazolun yapay besin ile beslenen Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvalarının yaşama ve gelişimine etkisi

Kılıç, Ali | Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Büyükgüzel, Ender

Article | 2015 | Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi21 ( 6 ) , pp.841 - 847

Benzimidazol grubu bir antihelmintik olan triklabendazolun yapay besin kullanılarak Büyük bal mumu güvesi Galleria mellonella (L.) larvalarının ergin evreye kadar farklı gelişme evrelerinde yaşama oranına ve gelişme süresine etkisi incelendi. Triklabendazol yapay besine %0.001, 0.01 ve 0.1 oranlarında ilave edilerek birinci evre larvaları besinlerde ergin oluncaya kadar yetiştirildi. Antihelmintik maddenin düşük konsantrasyonlarında (0.001 ve 0.01 g/100 g besin), son evre larva oranı (7. evre) ve ergin olma oranı kontrole göre önemli derecede düşük bulunurken, pupa olma oranı bakımından kontrol ile arasında istatistiksel farklılık o . . .luşmadı. Bunun tersine, denenen antihelmintik maddenin en yüksek besinsel konsantrasyonunda, pupa evresine ve ergin evreye ulaşma oranı kontrol grubundan önemli derecede düşük tespit edilirken 7. evreye ulaşan larva oranı bakımından kontrol ile arasında farklılık görülmedi. Triklabendazolun en yüksek konsantrasyonu (0.1 g/100 g besin) pupa olma oranını %81.6±4.32'den %43.3±7.45'e, ergin olma oranını %73.3±2.36'dan %13.3±2.36'ya düşürdü. En yüksek antihelmintik konsantrasyonu 7. evreye ulaşma süresini yaklaşık 3.8 gün uzatarak 22.8±1.54 güne ulaştırdı. Triklabendazolun %0.1 oranını içeren besin kontrol besinindeki 24.6±1.24 gün olan pupa olma süresini 28.4±1.24 güne, 35.3±1.27 gün olan ergin olma süresini 42.0±1.62 güne önemli derecede uzattı. Bu çalışma farklı kimyasal yapı ve etki mekanizmasına sahip antihelmintiklerin zararlı böceklerin mücadelesinde hedef olmayan canlılara ve çevreye karşı en az zararla kullanılabilirliğinin araştırılması açısından önemlidir The effect of triclabendazole, which is a benzimidazole anthelmintic, on the survival rate and developmental time in different stages of greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (L.) was investigated by rearing the larvae on the artificial diets. Triclabendazole was incorporated into diets at concentrations of 0.001, 0.01 or 0.1%. G. mellonella larvae was reared from first instar larvae to adult emergence on the artificial diets with different concentrations of triclabendazole. The survival rate in seventh instar (7th-instar) and adult stage were significantly lower at low concentrations of this anthelmintic agent (0.001 and 0.01 g per 100 g of diet) than the control, while there were no differences on pupation in comparison to control diet. However, the pupation and adult emergence were significantly lower at the highest dietary concentration of triclabendazole than control group but there were no differences on survival of 7th-instar larvae. The highest concentration of the anthelmintic agent (0.1 g/100 g diet) decreased pupation from 81.6±4.32% to 43.3±7.45%, adult emergence rate from 73.3±2.36 to 13.3±2.36. Triclabendazole at the highest concentration prolonged developmental time to 7th larval stage by 3.8 days reaching total 22.8±1.54 days. This diet containing 0.1% of triclabendazole significantly prolonged pupal developmental time from 24.6±1.24 days to 28.4±1.24 days, adult developmental time from 35.3±1.27 days to 42.0±1.62 days. This study is of importance in appreciation for usage of antihelmintic with different structure and mode of actions in the management of pest insects to reduce damage to environment and nontarget organism Daha fazlası Daha az

The effects of boric acid-induced oxidative stress on antioxidant enzymes and survivorship in Galleria mellonella

Hyršl, Pavel | Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2007 | Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology66 ( 1 ) , pp.23 - 31

Larvae of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), were reared from first instar on a diet supplemented with 156, 620, 1,250, or 2,500 ppm boric acid (BA). The content of malondialdehyde (MDA, an oxidative stress indicator), and activities of the antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] were determined in the fat body and hemolymph in the 7th instar larvae and newly emerged pupae. Relative to control larvae, MDA was significantly increased in larval hemolymph, larval and pupal fat body, but decreased in the pupal hemolymph. Insects reared on di . . .ets with 156-and 620-ppm BA doses yielded increased SOD activity but 1,250- and 2,500-ppm doses resulted in decreased SOD activity in larval hemolymph. SOD activity was significantly increased but CAT was decreased in the larval fat body. High dietary BA treatments led to significantly decreased GST activity. However, they increased GPx activity in larval hemolymph. Dietary BA also affected larval survival. The 1,250- and 2,500-ppm concentrations led to significantly increased larval and pupal mortality and prolonged development. In contrast, the lowest BA concentration increased longevity and shortened development. We infer that BA toxicity is related, at least in part, to oxidative stress management. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc Daha fazlası Daha az

Effects of some antimicrobial agents on the total protein content of the endoparasitoid Pimpla turionellae L. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2002 | Turkish Journal of Zoology26 ( 1 ) , pp.101 - 109

Endoparazitoid zarkanatlı türü, Pimpla turionellae L., kimyasal yapısı bilinen sentetik besin ortamlarında aseptik şartlarda beslenerek farklı yapı ve etkiye sahip olan onüç antimikrobiyal ajanın böceğin pup evresindeki total protein miktarına etkileri incelendi. Bu etkiler antimikrobiyal ajanın üeşidine ve besindeki miktarına göre değişmektedir. Pupların total protein miktarı penisillin, streptomisin, rifampisin, tetrasiklin hidroklorür, linkomisin hidroklorür, metil p-hidroksibenzoat, sikloheksimid, ve sodyum benzoat tarafından önemli derecede artırılırken nistatin ise bu miktarı azaltmıştır.Diğer denenen ajanlar ise böceğin prote . . .in miktarına önemli bir etki yapmamıştır.Antimikrobiyal ajanlar aynı zamanda besinsel miktarlarına baÛlı olarak böceğin yaş vucut ağırlığı üzerinde etkili olmußtur. Bu ajanların bazı miktarlarını içeren besinler ile beslenen larvaların oluşturduğu pupların kontrol besinindekilere göre daha düşük vucut ağırlığına sahip oldukları ancak bunların daha fazla protein içerdikleri tespit edilmiştir. Nistatinin 45 mg'ının ilave edildiği besin ise pupların yaş ağırlığında ve bunların protein miktarında önemli bir azalmaya neden olmuştur. The effects of thirteen antimicrobial agents that have different structures and modes of action on the total protein content of pupae of the hymenopterous endoparasitoid, Pimpla turionellae L., were investigated by rearing the larvae aseptically on chemically defined synthetic diets. These effects varied according to the their kind and dietary levels. The protein content of the pupae was significantly increased by penicillin, streptomycin, rifampicin, tetracycline hydrochloride, lincomycin hydrochloride, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, cycloheximide and sodium benzoate, while it was decreased by nystatin. The other tested antimicrobial agents had no significant effects on the total protein content of the insect. Depending on dietary levels, most of the tested agents also had an effect on the body wet weight of the insect. It was demonstrated that pupae from larvae fed on diets with some levels of tested antimicrobial agents had a lower body wet weight but contained more protein content than those of the control diet. The diet with 45 mg of nystatin caused a significant decrease in the wet weight of the pupae and their protein content Daha fazlası Daha az

Penicillin-induced oxidative stress: Effects on antioxidative response of midgut tissues in instars of Galleria mellonella

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Kalender, Yusuf

Article | 2007 | Journal of Economic Entomology100 ( 5 ) , pp.1533 - 1541

Penicillin and other antibiotics are routinely incorporated in insect culture media. Although culturing insects in the presence of antibiotics is a decades-old practice, antibiotics can exert deleterious influences on insects. In this article, we test the hypothesis that one of the effects of dietary penicillin is to increase oxidative stress on insects. The effects of penicillin on midgut concentrations of the oxidative stress indicator malondialdehyde (MDA) and on midgut antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione S-transferase [GST], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) and transaminases (alanine amin . . .otransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) activities in greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), were investigated. The insects were reared from first instars on artificial diets containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, or 1.0 g penicillin per 100 g of diets. MDA content was significantly increased in the midgut tissues of each larval instar reared in the presence of high penicillin concentrations. Activities of antioxidant and transaminase enzymes did not show a consistent pattern with respect to penicillin concentrations in diet or age of larvae. Despite the increased penicillin-induced oxidative stress in gut tissue, antioxidant and transaminase enzymes did not correlate with oxidative stress level or between each other in larvae of other age stages except for the seventh instar. We found a significant negative correlation of MDA content with SOD and GST activities in seventh instars. SOD activity was also negatively correlated with CAT activity in seventh instars. These results suggest that exposure to dietary penicillin resulted in impaired enzymatic antioxidant defense capacity and metabolic functions in wax moth larval midgut tissues and that the resulting oxidative stress impacts midgut digestive physiology. © 2007 Entomological Society of America Daha fazlası Daha az

Boric acid-induced effects on protein profiles of Galleria mellonella hemolymph and fat body

Hyršl, Pavel | Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2008 | Acta Biologica Hungarica59 ( 3 ) , pp.281 - 288

The dietary effects of boric acid (BA) on the protein profiles of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), were investigated in hemolymph and fat body of final instar (VIIth) and pupae. The insects were reared from first-instar larvae on an artificial diets containing 156, 620, 1250 or 2500 ppm of BA. We detected many undetermined protein fractions (6.5-260 kDa) in addition to well-defined protein fractions such as lipophorins and storage proteins in the tissues by using sodium dodecyl-sulphate polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. A marked quantitative change in the 45 kDa protein fraction of the hemolymph was observed in . . . the VIIth instar larvae reared on 2500 ppm dietary BA. © 2008 Akadémiai Kiadó Daha fazlası Daha az

The influence of dietary alpha-solanine on the waxmoth galleria mellonellal

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Erdem, Meltem | Adamski, Zbigniew | Adamski, Zbigniew | Marciniak, Pawel | Ziemnicki, Kazimierz

Article | 2013 | Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology83 ( 1 ) , pp.15 - 24

Plant allelochemicals are nonnutritional chemicals that interfere with the biology of herbivores. We posed the hypothesis that ingestion of a glycoalkaloid allelochemical, ?-solanine, impairs biological parameters of greater wax moths Galleria mellonella. To test this idea, we reared wax moths on artificial diets with 0.015, 0.15, or 1.5 mg/100 g diet of ?-solanine. Addition of ?-solanine to the diet affected survival of seventh-instar larvae, pupae, and adults; and female fecundity and fertility. The diet containing the highest ?-solanine concentration led to decreased survivorship, fecundity, and fertility. The diets supplemented . . .with ?-solanine led to increased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in midgut and fat body and the effect was dose-dependent. Dietary ?-solanine led to increased midgut glutathione S-transferase activity and to decreased fat body glutathione S-transferase activitiy. We infer from these findings that ?-solanine influences life history parameters and antioxidative enzyme activities in the midgut and fat body of G. mellonella. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc Daha fazlası Daha az

Biochemical stress indicators of greater wax moth exposure to organophosphorus insecticides

İçen, Ender | Armutçu, Ferah | Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Gürel, Ahmet

Article | 2005 | Journal of Economic Entomology98 ( 2 ) , pp.358 - 366

Although acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the primary target of organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), increasing evidence regarding their secondary effects suggests that OPs disturb homeostasis of insects by generating free radical intermediates that trigger lipid peroxidation. We therefore investigated alterations in lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, in conjunction with AChE activity as biochemical stress indicators in greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) larvae for OPs methyl parathion (MP) and ethyl parathion (EP). The . . .effects of MP and EP were first investigated by rearing the young larvae on an artificial diet containing 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ppm of each insecticide. Second, the mature larvae were injected with 0.05, 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 ng of insecticides for determining the changes in biochemical stress responses. The diet with lowest level of MP significantly decreased the activities of all measured enzymes, whereas it increased MDA content. However ALT and AST were significantly higher in the larvae reared with the diet with high levels of MP than in control larvae. All tested levels of MP resulted in a decrease in AChE activity. The lowest level of EP in diet (0.01 ppm) significantly increased ALT activity, whereas it reduced that of AChE. This insecticide at 0.1 ppm resulted in reduced AST activity, but 1 ppm in diet elevated AST activity and MDA content. EP at 0.1 ppm and higher levels in the diet reduced ALT activity. All dietary EP levels significantly decreased AChE activity. ALT, AST, and AChE were lower in larvae fed with the diet containing 100 ppm ethyl parathion compared with larvae on control diet. MP at 50 ng per larva increased ALT and AST activities from 35.42 ± 0.74 and 26.34 ± 0.83 to 203.57 ± 1.09, and 122.90 ± 1.21 U/g, respectively, when the mature larvae were injected. All injected doses of EP dramatically reduced both ALT and AST activities, but only the lowest and highest levels of this insecticide decreased AChE activity. The lowest level of this insecticide also significantly increased MDA content in larvae. High levels of both insecticides increased MDA content. We observed a significant higher increase in MDA content in the larvae reared with 10 ppm EP (102.16 ± 1.57 nmol/g protein) than the control group (30.28 ± 1.42 nmol/g protein). These results suggest that OPs caused the metabolic and synaptic dysfunctions in greater wax moth and alter its biochemical physiology in response to oxidative stress. © 2005 Entomological Society of America Daha fazlası Daha az

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