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DNA gyrase inhibitors: Novobiocin enhances the survival of Pimpla turionellae (Hym., Ichneumonidae) larvae reared on an artificial diet but other antibiotics do not

Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2001 | Journal of Applied Entomology125 ( 09.Oct ) , pp.583 - 587

Effects of novobiocin, nalidixic and oxolinic acids, which are potent antibacterial agents, on the survival and development of the hymenopterous endoparasitoid, Pimpla turionellae L. (Ichneumonidae) were investigated alone by rearing the larvae aseptically on chemically defined synthetic diets. Survival of the fifth instar larvae was not significantly affected by diets with different levels of antibiotics tested. A diet containing the lowest level of novobiocin significantly increased yields of pupae and adults. This level also significantly shortened the developmental time for fifth instar but had no significant effect on complete . . .development of the larvae up to adult emergence. Oxolinic acid at the lowest level did not affect the survival but prolonged development of the insect. In general, the rate of development was significantly increased and the survival was decreased with high levels of the antibiotics. However, nalidixic acid caused a striking decrease in the survival at all tested levels. These results suggest that novobiocin and to a lesser extent oxolinic acid are compatible for addition to artificial diet for rearing P. turionellae, which is an important parasitoid used in biological control Daha fazlası Daha az

Evidence of oxidative and antioxidative responses by Galleria mellonella larvae to malathion

Büyükgüzel, Ender

Article | 2009 | Journal of Economic Entomology102 ( 1 ) , pp.152 - 159

Antioxidant defense components protect insects by scavenging reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative stress. I therefore investigated the effects of an organophosphorous insecticide, malathion, on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities as well as glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content as oxidative stress biomarkers in whole body of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), larvae. Subcellular fractionation also was assayed for SOD and AChE enzymes to assess subcellular toxicity of malathion in this wax moth. The newly hatched larvae were reared on diets containing 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, a . . .nd 10 ppm malathion. The diet with lowest concentration of malathion did not significantly influence MDA content and AChE activity. Malathion at 1.0 ppm significantly resulted in increased MDA content and decreased AChE activity. I observed a significant increase in SOD activity, whereas total GSH content and AChE activity were significantly lower for 1.0 ppm malathion than the control groups. Highest concentration of dietary malathion significantly decreased SOD and AChE activities, and GSH content in whole body of the insect. Subcellular fractionations showed that activities of microsomal and soluble AChE, and microsomal SOD for high concentrations of malathion (1.0 and 10 ppm) were significantly lower than control. Soluble SOD activities were significantly increased by low malathion concentrations, whereas only the highest malathion concentration resulted in significantly decreased SOD activity. I infer that induction of antioxidant defense mechanisms in response to increased oxidative stress may be a result of AChE inhibition by malathion in G. mellonella larvae. © 2009 Entomological Society of America Daha fazlası Daha az

Calli ultrastructure of globularia trichosantha ssp trichosanthale

Atar, Havva | Çölgeçen, Hatice | Akgül, Gencay

Article | 2017 | PERIODICUM BIOLOGORUM119 ( 3 ) , pp.209 - 218

Background and Purpose: This study aimed to produce calli with explants of aseptic seedlings after germination of G. trichosantha ssp. trichosantha seeds by plant tissue culture method and to examine the ultrastructure of the produced calli with electron microscope preparation. Materials and Methods: Seeds of G. trichosantha ssp. trichosantha were germinated in hormone-free Murashige and Skoog in in vitro conditions. Hypocotyl, epicotyl, cotyledon, young primer leaf, apical meristem and root explants taken from 30-day aseptic seedlings were transferred to Murashige and Skoog media for callus production which contained varying concen . . .trations of 6-benzilamynopurine, indole acetic acid and 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Results: Two types of calli were determined: Yellow calli (Type 1) and Black calli (Type 2) with darkened colour and appearance that have not lost their development properties. Following lead staining, thin sections were examined by transmission electron microscope. The best callus production occurred at the Murashige and Skoog medium containing indole acetic acid and 6-benzilamynopurine and in root explants. The cells of Type 1 calli were spherical and large. The cells contained usually one nucleus and nucleolus. Also the cells contained a very large vacuole, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids. Deformed cells and spherical cells were determined in Type 2 calli. The cells were observed to have smaller vacoules and higher numbers of mitochondria different from Type 1 calli. Type 1 and Type 2 calli showed bulging mitochondrial cristae. Electrondense droplets were observed in vacuoles of both Type 1 and Type 2 calli Daha fazlası Daha az

Discrimination of 2n=60 Spalax leucodon cytotypes (Spalacidae, Rodentia) in Turkey by means of classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques

Ivanitskaya, E. | Sözen, Mustafa | Rashkovetsky, L. | Matur, Ferhat | Nevo, E.

Article | 2008 | CYTOGENETIC AND GENOME RESEARCH122 ( 2 ) , pp.139 - 149

Comparative studies among seven populations of 2n = 60 S. leucodon employing classic cytogenetics (G-bands, C-bands, AgNOR-staining), fluorochrome staining, and fluorescence in situ hybridization of telomeric and rDNA probes are reported here for the first time. The studied specimens were assigned to two cytotypes: 2n = 60W and 2n = 60R. The basic karyotype of both cytotypes consisted of eight pairs of subtelocentric and 21 pairs of acrocentric autosomes, subtelocentric X and acrocentric Y chromosomes. Both cytotypes had variable numbers of B-chromosomes (1-3) and variable numbers of autosomal arms (NFa = 74-76) caused by amplificat . . .ion (deletion) of heterochromatin short arms in the second pair. The short arms of subtelocentric chromosomes were comprised of heterochromatin in both cytotypes. Nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and rDNA clusters were detected at telomeric sites of the short arms in pairs Nos. 3, 5, 6, 9, and 13 in cytotype W, and in the short arms of pair No. 6, 8, 12, 13, and 16 in cytotype R. Different locations of rDNA clusters allowed unambiguous discrimination between two S. leucodon cytotypes possessing the same 2n = 60 and similar NFa (74-76) variability. Our findings suggest a high level of chromosomal divergence, which means that it is possible to consider these cytotypes as a well-differentiated, chromosomal lineage within the leucodon group. Copyright (C) 2008 S. Karger AG, Base Daha fazlası Daha az

The bryophyte flora of Sinop Peninsula (Turkey)

Söylemez, Burçin | Ören, Muhammet | Ursavaş, Serhat | Keçeli, Tamer

Article | 2017 | Biological Diversity and Conservation10 ( 3 ) , pp.120 - 129

This study presents knowledge about bryophytes of Sinop peninsula which one of the Key Biodiversity Areas (KBA). Research materials were collected from 60 different sites between September 2014-June 2016. As a result of the evaluation of 614 samples 25 species of 17 genera belonging to 17 families from Marchantiophyta (Liverworts), 130 species of 74 genera belonging to 28 families from Bryophyta (mosses), 2 species of 2 genera belonging to 2 families from Anthocerotophyta (Hornworts). In total, 157 specific and infraspecific taxa belonging to 47 families and 93 genera were identified. Among these, 95 taxa are new to Sinop province a . . .nd 26 taxa are new to A3 square according to Henderson (1961) grid system. Bu çalışma Önemli Doğa Alanları (ÖDA)’ndan biri olan Sinop Yarımadası’nın briyofitleri hakkında bilgi sunmaktadır. Araştırma materyali Eylül 2014-Haziran 2016 tarihleri arasında 60 farklı notadan toplanmıştır. 614 örneğin değerlendirilmesi sonucunda Machantiophyta’dan (Ciğerotları) 17 familya ve 17 cinse ait 25, Bryophyta’dan (Karayosunları) 28 familya ve 74 cinse ait 130, Anthocerotophyta’dan (Boynuzotları) 2 familya ve 2 cinse ait 2 tür tespit edilmiştir. Toplamda 47 familya ve 93 cinse ait, tür ve tür altı düzeyde 157 takson tespit edilmiştir. Bunlar arasından 95 tanesi Sinop ili için, 26 tanesi ise Henderson (1961) kareleme sistemine göre A3 karesi için yenidir Daha fazlası Daha az

Karyotogy of some bat species (Chiroptera : Rhinotophidae, Molossidae) from Turkey

Karataş, Ahmet | Sözen, Mustafa | Matur, Ferhat

Article | 2006 | MAMMALIAN BIOLOGY71 ( 3 ) , pp.159 - 163

WOS: 000238250600004

Sphagnum centrale and other remarkable bryophyte records from the kaçkar mountains (Northern Turkey)

Abay, Gökhan | Uyar, Güray | Keçeli, Tamer | Çetin, Barbaros

Article | 2009 | Cryptogamie, Bryologie30 ( 3 ) , pp.399 - 407

Data on the occurrence of some rare bryophyte taxa in the Kaçkar Mountains in Turkey are presented. Besides, Sphagnum centrale C.E.O.Jensen is first reported from Turkey, extending its distribution range to the Caucasus.

Galleria mellonella (L.) survivorship, development and protein content in response to dietary antibiotics

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Kalender, Yusuf

Article | 2008 | Journal of Entomological Science43 ( 1 ) , pp.27 - 40

Antibiotics are routinely incorporated in insect culture media. Although culturing insects on diets containing antibiotics is a decades-old practice, the antibiotics can exert deleterious effects on the insects. Diets amended with penicillin, streptomycin, fluconazole or griseofulvin were evaluated as to their impact on survivorship, development, wet weight, and adult total protein content of Galleria mellonella (L.). Insects were reared from neonates to adults on artificial diets containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0 g of the antibiotics (per 100 g diet). Dose- and stage-dependent variations in both biological and biochemical paramete . . .rs occurred. Penicillin at high concentrations significantly increased the wet weight of the insect, whereas low dietary fluconazole, griseofulvin and streptomycin concentrations significantly increased wet weight and high concentrations decreased wet weight. Dietary antibiotic treatment resulted in significantly decreased survivorship and increased developmental time of larvae. The diet amended with 1.0 g of either penicillin or streptomycin decreased pupation and adult emergence by 50%. Larvae reared on the diets supplemented with the highest concentrations of fluconazole and griseofulvin produced as low as 20% of adults. The 0.1 g fluconazole treatment prolonged adult development by 8 d. High dietary griseofulvin concentrations markedly decreased total protein content of adults. Other antibiotics also resulted in decreased total protein content in adults depending on their types and concentrations. Slightly enhanced survivorship, shortened development and increased total protein content were observed with some sublethal doses of antibiotics. It appears that dietary antibiotic impact on insect biological parameters is exerted via their deteriorative effects on biochemical factors in relation to alterations in wet weight. Low concentrations of these antibiotics can be used in artificial rearing of G. mellonella Daha fazlası Daha az

Bazı böcek türlerinde kimyasal iletişimi sağlayan proteinlerin moleküler yapıları ve biyokimyasal

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Tunaz, Hasan | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Other | 2006 | Türk Biyokimya Dergisi31 ( 4 ) , pp.194 - 206

Karasal ortamda yaşıyan hayvansal organizmaların koku alma duyuları (olfaktör sistem) uçucu hidrofobik molekülleri tespit ederek seçebilecek şekilde özelleşmiştir. Bu moleküllerin bazıları bitkisel kaynaklı uçucu bileşikler olup bazıları da hayvansal organizmalar tarafından salınan hidrofobik özellikte, hidrokarbon yapısında ve feromonlar olarak isimlendirilen koku molekülleridir. Böceklerin antenlerinin birincil görevi, karşı eşeyden salınan eşey feromonlarını, diğer fizyolojik ve davranışsal işlevleri gerçekleştiren semiokimyasalları ve bitkisel kaynaklı uçucu molekülleri içeren kokuları algılamaktır. Lepidoptera takımına ait güve . . . türlerinin antenlerinde trikoid ve bazikonik olarak isimlendirilen iki olfaktör duyu almacı (sensilyum) belirlenmiştir. Trikoid sensilyumlar feromonları algılamak üzere özelleşmiştir. Hidrofobik semiokimyasallar koku bağlayıcı proteinler tarafından bağlanarak çözünür forma dönüştürüldükten sonra sensillar lenfteki sulu ortamdan sinyal iletiminin başlatıldığı olfaktör reseptöre doğru taşınır. Bu proteinler altı adet sistein amino asidi taşıması nedeniyle benzer yapıda olup feromon bağlayan proteinler ve koku bağlayan proteinler olarak iki alt gruba ayrılır. Üç adet disülfür bağı oluşturan bu sistein amino asitleri proteinlerin üç boyutlu yapılarının kararlılığı için gereklidir. Feromonlar böcekler, diğer hayvan grupları ve insanlar tarafından kimyasal iletişimi sağlamak amacıyla salınan kokusuz, doğal moleküllerdir. Bu moleküller, dişi böceğin erkeğini kilometrelerce uzaktan bulabilmesini sağlayacak kadar etkindir. Feromon bağlayan proteinler Lepidoptera takımına ait güveler ve diğer böcek türlerindeki çeşitli duyu organlarında bulunan, düşük moleküler ağırlığa sahip (13-17 kDa) heliks yapısında proteinlerdir. Koku bağlayan proteinler ise kimyasal duyu sensilyumlarının lenf sıvısında oldukça yoğun olarak bulunan düşük moleküler ağırlıklı (15 kDa) çözünür proteinlerdir. Diğer birçok böcek türlerinin çeşitli duyu organlarında küçük bir protein grubu daha belirlenmiştir. Dört sistein amino asidi içermesinden dolayı feromon bağlayıcı protein ve koku bağlayıcı protein ile amino asit dizilişi bakımından daha az benzerlik gösteren bu proteinler, kimyasal duyu proteinleri olarak ayrı bir gruba dahil edilir. Bunlar koku ve tat gibi kimyasal sinyallerin algılanmasından sorumlu olup çeşitli kimyasalların hava ve su ortamından reseptörlere taşınmasında rol oynar. The olfactory systems of terrestial animals are designed to trap and sample volatile hydrophobic molecules. Some of these molecules are odorants, such as volatile plant compounds and pheromones emitted from the other organisms. Insect antennae have a primary function of detecting odors including sex pheromones and plant volatiles. In moths, the organs devoted to olfactory perception have been identified in antennae as the sensilla trichoid and basiconic, the former being tuned to the perception of pheromones. The hydrophobic semiochemicals are solublized by odorant-binding proteins and transported through an aqueous environment (sensillar lymph) to the olfactory receptors, where the signal transduction starts. These proteins, subdivided into pheromone-binding proteins and general odorant-binding proteins, all have a hallmark of six conserved cysteine residues forming three disulfide bridges which are essential for the rigidity of their three-dimensional structures. Pheromones are naturally occuring odorless chemical messenger compounds found in all insects, animals, and humans. They could attract male insects from a long distance exceeding kilometers. Pheromone-binding proteins are small helical proteins (13-17 kDa) present in several sensory organs from moth and other insect species. Odorant-binding proteins are small (15 kDa) soluble proteins, very concentrated in the lymph of chemosensory sensilla. A third class of small proteins has been identified in several sensorial organs from a number of insect orders. They have been separated into a group of chemosensory proteins, characterized by four cystein residues and with low sequence similarity to odorant-binding proteins. They are involved in chemoperception (olfaction and taste) and to play a role in chemical transport from air or water to chemosensitive receptors Daha fazlası Daha az

Eicosanoids in insect immunity: Bacterial infection stimulates hemocytic phospholipase A(2) activity in tobacco hornworms

Tunaz, Hasan | Park, Youngjin | Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Bedick, Job C. | Aliza, A.R. Nor | Stanley, David W.

Article | 2003 | ARCHIVES OF INSECT BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY52 ( 1 ) , pp.1 - 6

Intracellular phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) is responsible for releasing arachidonic acid from cellular phospholipids, and is thought to be the first step in eicosanoid biosynthesis. Intracellular PLA(2)s have been characterized in fat body and hemocytes from tobacco hornworms, Manduco sexta. here we show that bacterial challenge stimulated increased PLA(2) activity in isolated hemocyte preparations, relative to control hemocyte preparations that were challenged with water. The increased activity was detected as early as 15 s post-challenge and lasted for at least 1 h. The increased activity depended on a minimum bacterial challenge d . . .ose, and was inhibited in reactions conducted in the presence of oleyoxyethylphosphorylcholine, a site-specific PLA(2) inhibitor. In independent experiments with serum prepared from whole hemolymph, we found no PLA(2) activity was secreted into serum during the first 24 h following bacterial infection. We infer that a hemocytic intracellular PLA(2) activity is increased immediately an infection is detected. The significance of this enzyme lies in its role in launching the biosynthesis of eicosanoids, which mediate cellular immune reactions to bacterial infection Daha fazlası Daha az

Karyotype of Taphozous nudiventris cretzschmar, 1830 (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Turkey

Karataş, Ahmet | Sözen, Mustafa

Article | 2002 | Israel Journal of Zoology48 ( 4 ) , pp.359 - 360

[No abstract available]

Dicranum flexicaule Brid. (Dicranaceae, Bryopsida), new to the moss flora of southwest Asia

Uyar, Güray | Abay, Gökhan | Çetin, Barbaros | Keçeli, Tamer

Article | 2008 | Cryptogamie, Bryologie29 ( 1 ) , pp.103 - 106

Dicranum flexicaule Brid. is recorded for the first time in southwest-Asia, from specimens collected in northeastern Turkey. A site description, illustrations and a few characters of the Turkish specimens different from the European ones are given, together with notes on its distribution and ecology in the studied area. © 2008 Adac. Tous droits réservés.

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