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Influence of smoking on human milk tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels at postpartum seventh day

Ermis, Bahri | Yildirim, Abdulkadir | Tastekin, Ayhan | Ors, Rahmi

Article | 2009 | PEDIATRICS INTERNATIONAL51 ( 6 ) , pp.821 - 824

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on human milk interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels at the postpartum seventh day. Methods: Forty-four mothers (age range: 21-34 years) were enrolled in the study. Mothers were interviewed and classified according to their smoking status into one of two groups: the smoking mothers (n = 21) and the nonsmoking mothers (n = 23). Results: There were no significant differences between study groups with respect to human milk interleukin-1 beta (P = 0.12) and soluble . . . vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels (P = 0.83). However, TNF-alpha levels were found to be significantly lower in the smoking mothers compared with the controls (P = 0.002). Conclusion: This study shows that maternal smoking during pregnancy affects the levels of TNF-alpha in milk. The protective effect of human milk against infections seems to be impaired in smoking mothers Daha fazlası Daha az

Influence of smoking on serum an milk malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and antioxidant potential levels in mothers at the postpartum seventh day

Ermis, B | Yildirim, A | Ors, R | Tastekin, A | Ozkan, B | Akcay, F

Article | 2005 | BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH105 ( 01.Mar ) , pp.27 - 36

The aim of the study was to investigate simultaneously serum and milk malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and antioxidant potential (AOP) in active-smoking, passive-smoking, and nonsmoking mothers and to search if there is any difference between serum and milk oxidant/ antioxidant status caused by smoking. According to their smoking status, 60 mothers (age range: 20-35 yr) were classified into one of three groups: the active-smoking mothers (n=15), the passive-smoking mothers (n=22), and the nonsmoking mothers (n=23). Serum and milk MDA, SOD, GPx, and AOP values were det . . .ermined in mothers on the postpartum seventh day by the spectrophotometric method. Serum Zn and Cu concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). There was no significant difference in serum samples with respect to MDA (p=0.17), SOD (p=0.51), and AOP (p=0.36) levels, but there was a significant difference in serum GPx (p=0.002) levels among the study groups. The significant differences were also found in milk samples in terms of MDA (p=0.002) and SOD (p=0.011), but not in GPx (p=0.11) and AOP (p=0.29) levels among the study groups. No significant difference was seen in serum zinc concentration (p=0.49), but copper concentration differed significantly among the groups (p=0.005). These observations suggest that human milk is more vulnerable to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation than serum samples in smoking mothers, even if they are passive smokers Daha fazlası Daha az

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