The Turkish Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Urticaria-2016

Goncu, Emek Kocaturk | Aktan, Sebnem | Atakan, Nilgun | Baskan, Emel Bulbul | Erdem, Teoman | Koca, Rafet | Savk, Ekin


Background and Design: Albeit an easily recognized disease, urticaria features many diverse approaches which rationalize the need for an algorithm for the diagnosis, classification, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic approach. Therefore, authors from Dermatoallergy Working Group of the Turkish Society of Dermatology and the Turkish Dermatoimmunology and Allergy Association aimed to create an urticaria guideline for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of urticaria. Materials and Methods: Each section of the guideline has been written by a different author. The prepared sections were evaluated in part by e-mail . . . correspondence and have taken its final form after revision in the last meeting held by the participation of all authors. Results: The guideline includes the description, classification, pathophysiology as well as diagnosis and treatment of urticaria. Urticaria is classified into two main types: acute urticaria and chronic urticaria while chronic urticaria is further subdivided into spontaneous urticaria and inducible urticaria. The first step of treatment includes standard doses of H1-blockers. In patients who do not respond to the first step, antihistamine dose is increased up to four times; if unsuccessful, another second-generation antihistamine is given in the same dose. In antihistamine-resistant cases, introduction of omalizumab is required. Omalizumab dose may be increased in patients failing to respond to the standard dose. In patients unresponsive to omalizumab, cyclosporine-A may be given. Routine diagnostic tests are not recommended in acute urticaria. In chronic urticaria, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, differential blood count and C-reactive protein testing are the only investigations that are needed routinely. Conclusion: Chronic urticaria is a disease that can be challenging for the physician in terms of treatment and follow-up. Depending on evidence-based data (and individual experiences), this guideline will have a leading role in the diagnosis and treatment of urticaria and help the physician to overcome the challenges in the management Daha fazlası Daha az

The algorithm development and implementation for 3d printers based on adaptive PID controller

Altan, Aytaç | Hacıoğlu, Rıfat

Article | 2018 | JOURNAL OF POLYTECHNIC-POLITEKNIK DERGISI21 ( 3 ) , pp.559 - 564

The 3D printers widely used in the world are produced in different mechanical and electronic designs. The 3D printers which have various mechanical structures such as cartesian, delta and core (xy, xz) already are used open source code software such as Sprinter, Marlin, Cura 3D and Teacup. The control of the 3D printers is usually done by the classical Propotional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control algorithm. In this study, we have developed for the designed 3D printer a new software by using adaptive PID control algorithm instead of classical PID. Five step motors of the designed 3D printer are controlled by the adaptive PID. In add . . .ition, there are both heating and cooling processes in the extruder system and these processes are controlled by the adaptive PID. The mechanical design uses a belt and pulley drive system which is suitable for accelerated movements. In the system software, 3D Printing Software Pipeline (input model, orientation and positioning, support structures, slicing, path planning, machine instructions) is applied. The control algorithms for extruder and step motors are prepared as separate function files in software implemented in C. It has been observed that the designed software is particularly successful in eliminating errors on the surface of the products Daha fazlası Daha az

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