Filtreler
Comparison of ephedrine and ketamine in prevention of injection pain and hypotension due to propofol induction

Özkoçak I. | Altunkaya H. | Özer Y. | Ayoglu H. | Demirel C.B. | Çiçek E.

Article | 2005 | European Journal of Anaesthesiology22 ( 1 ) , pp.44 - 48

Background and objective: This prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study compares the effects of ephedrine and ketamine on injection pain, and hypotension from propofol. Methods: After obtaining the approval of the Ethics Commitee, 75 patients (ASA I-II) scheduled for elective operations with general anaesthesia were divided into three groups. Saline 2 mL (Group S, n = 25), ketamine 0.5 mg kg-1 (Group K, n = 25) or ephedrine 70 µg kg-1 (Group E, n = 25) were administered over 5 s after tourniquet application. After releasing the tourniquet, propofol 2 mg kg-1 was injected in 30 s. Pain was evaluated on a numeri . . .cal scale (0-10) where 0 represented no pain and 10 the most severe pain possible. Systolic, diastolic blood pressures and heart rates were recorded preoperatively, 1 min after propofol injection, before intubation and 1, 2 and 3 min after intubation in all patients. Results: The incidences of pain in Groups S, E and K were similar (84%, 80% and 72%, respectively). The mean pain score in Group K (2.1, SD 3.1) was significantly lower than those of Groups S and E (4.9, SD 2.6 and 4.6, SD 3.3, respectively) (P < 0.05). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure values in Group K (120 ± 27 mmHg) and Group E (123 ± 21 mmHg) before intubation were significantly higher than that of Group S (104 ± 25 mmHg) (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the mean heart rate values of the groups. Conclusions: Low dose ketamine or ephedrine pretreatment may prevent hypotension due to propofol induction. Despite the reduction in injection pain intensity after ketamine, the study drugs were found to be ineffective in lowering the injection pain incidence. © 2005 European Society of Anaesthesiology Daha fazlası Daha az

Adjusting the effect of baseline differences between groups in trials with which have two or more groups [Iki veya daha fazla gruplu denemelerde gruplar arasindaki başlangiç degerleri farkliliginin etkisinin düzeltilmesi]

Ankarali H. | Ankarali S.

Article | 2009 | Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Sciences29 ( 1 ) , pp.91 - 98

Objective: In many clinical and experimental trials, researchers assess the effect of treatment by measuring the value of a continuous variable before and after the treatment. If there is an imbalance in baseline values between groups, some statistical comparisons may result with mistakes in estimation of the treatment effect. The aim of this study was to explain which statistical methods were more suitable in the estimation of the treatment effect when there was an imbalance for the baseline values between groups. Material and Methods: Different statistical methods, which are used in estimation of treatment effects, were briefly ex . . .plained and were applied to a hypothetical data set, which had significant differences between groups according to baseline values of the related variable. In addition, a limited simulation study for several conditions was carried out to determine suitable statistical methods. Results: Baseline values were different between two groups and correlation was low between baseline and follow up values of related variable in each group for hypothetical data set. In this condition, comparison of simple differences between baseline and follow up values was the best method for the estimation of treatment effect. In the simulation study, the power of the test for simple differences was higher (85%) than the value in the analysis of covariance (40%) when correlations were low and sample sizes were small in each group. Moreover, the powers of these two tests were high and similar to each other, when sample sizes were moderate. When the correlation was high, the powers of both tests were high in both small and moderate sample sizes. Conclusion: The presence of a significant difference should be sought between groups according to baseline values of the related variable even though groups are randomly assigned. In addition, the degree of the correlation between baseline and follow up values should be taken into consideration. When significant differences exist between baseline values and the correlation is low, we suggest that the classical methods should be used to determine the significance of the effect; however, when the correlation is high, covariance analysis is a suitable method. Copyright © 2009 by Türkiye Klinikleri Daha fazlası Daha az

6698 sayılı Kişisel Verilerin Korunması Kanunu kapsamında yükümlülüklerimiz ve çerez politikamız hakkında bilgi sahibi olmak için alttaki bağlantıyı kullanabilirsiniz.

creativecommons
Bu site altında yer alan tüm kaynaklar Creative Commons Alıntı-GayriTicari-Türetilemez 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.
Platforms