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Coal desulfurization using natural Ca-based sorbents

Sutcu H.

Article | 2004 | Coal Preparation24 ( 05.Jun ) , pp.249 - 259

Lignite with a high organic sulfur content was desulfurized by pyrolysis performed at temperatures ranging from 650 to 950°C. An investigation was carried out on the effect of calcium-based sorbents such as lime, limestone, and dolomite on removing sulfur during pyrolysis in the presence of N2 and CO2 gases. Limestone and dolomite proved more effective than lime and more sulfur was removed in an atmosphere of CO2 than in an atmosphere of N2.

Preparation of activated carbons from Zonguldak region coals by physical and chemical activations for hydrogen sorption

Kopac T. | Toprak A.

Article | 2007 | International Journal of Hydrogen Energy32 ( 18 ) , pp.5005 - 5014

Activated carbons were prepared by physical and chemical activations from coals collected from two mines (Kilimli and Armutcuk) in Zonguldak region, Turkey under different conditions. Ash content was reduced considerably by use of HCl and HF treatments. Pyrolytic thermal treatments in a temperature range of 600-900 {ring operator} C under N2 flow and chemical treatments using different chemical agents such as KOH, NH4Cl, ZnCl2 were applied to the coal samples from the two mines. N2 adsorption isotherms were obtained at 77.4 K for the thermally and the chemically treated samples and the data were used for the evaluation of the specif . . .ic surface area, total pore volumes and the average pore sizes of the samples. Higher surface area values were obtained from Kilimli coal samples than Armutcuk. The BET surface area of the Kilimli coal samples which were initially have a value of 1.20 m2/g were increased to 52.62 m2/g after pyrolytic heat treatments at 800 {ring operator} C and increased to a value of 830.5 m2/g by treating the coals with KOH + NH4 Cl mixture at 750 {ring operator} C followed by oxidation of the samples mixed with ZnCl2. The activated carbon samples were prepared for the purpose of their evaluation in hydrogen sorption studies. © 2007 International Association for Hydrogen Energy Daha fazlası Daha az

The pyrolytic characteristics and kinetics of agricultural waste, bituminous coal, and their blends

Sütcü H. | Pişkin S.

Article | 2011 | Materials and Manufacturing Processes26 ( 1 ) , pp.99 - 103

This study investigates the pyrolytic characteristics and kinetics of bituminous coal, vine-trimming waste, and blends of these in varying proportions. The pyrolysis of the bituminous coal and vine-trimming waste was performed at heating rates of 5°C/min, 20°C/min, and 80°C/min under a nitrogen flow rate of 50ml/min from ambient to 1000°C. Different blends containing 10%, 20%, 40%, and 50% vine-trimming waste were prepared and pyrolyzed at a heating rate of 20°C/min and a nitrogen flow rate of 50ml/min from room temperature up to 1000°C. The reaction degrees and kinetic parameters were calculated using the Coats and Redfern kinetic . . .model. The pyrolysis of bituminous coal and vine-trimming waste took place in two stages, and with increasing heating rate there was a decrease in the activation energies. In contrast, the pyrolysis of the blends occurred in two stages. The first stage involves decomposition of vine-trimming waste, and the second one that of bituminous coal. As the proportion of vine-trimming waste in the blend increased, there was a decrease in the activation energy in the first stage and an increase in the second stage. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Daha fazlası Daha az

Pyrolysis of Phragmites Australis and characterization of liquid and solid products

Sutcu H.

Article | 2008 | Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry14 ( 5 ) , pp.573 - 577

In this study, an investigation was conducted in order to find out whether Phragmites Australis can be utilized in various ways by means of pyrolysis in a tubular fixed-bed system. To this end, a study was carried out to investigate the effect of the pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, sweep gas flow rate and the size of Phragmites Australis on pyrolysis. The maximum tar yield was achieved at 550 °C pyrolysis temperature, a heating rate of 25 °C/min and a sweeping gas flow rate of 100 ml/min. The average chemical composition of the tar obtained was established by elemental analysis and its structural analysis was conducted by 1H NM . . .R spectrum and FTIR spectrum. Moreover, elemental and proximate analyses were conducted of the chars obtained in all experimental conditions to collect information on their structure. © 2008 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Daha fazlası Daha az

The examination of liquid, solid, and gas products obtained by the pyrolysis of the three different peat and reed samples

Sutcu H.

Article | 2008 | Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Transactions of the ASME130 ( 2 ) , pp.214011 - 214014

Samples from four different parts of the peat deposits in the Yeniçaga (Bolu, Turkey) region were pyrolyzed in a fix-bed pipe type furnace at a heating rate of 2° C/min and at a temperature of 600°C. The analyses for the structure of the liquid products obtained were performed by elemental analysis, 1H-NMR spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The structure of the solid products was determined by proximate and ultimate analyses, while the composition of gas products was found by gas chromatography. Copyright © 2008 by ASME.

Pyrolysis by thermogravimetric analysis of blends of peat with coals of different characteristics and biomass

Sutcu H.

Article | 2007 | Journal of the Chinese Institute of Chemical Engineers38 ( 03.Apr ) , pp.245 - 249

In this study, an investigation was carried out into the thermal behaviours of peat, reed, lignite, bituminous coal and blends of these with peat. The blends were prepared in 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20. The samples were pyrolysed in a TG analyzer in a nitrogen atmosphere (50 mL/ min) at temperatures ranging from 25 to 900 °C. Using TG/DTG graphs, variations were investigated, which occurred in reaction intervals, percent of weight loss, peak temperatures and maximum devolatilization rate. The activation energy (E) and pre-exponential constant (A) were calculated using the Arrhenius type kinetic model. © 2007 Taiwan Institute of Chem . . .ical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

Pyrolysis kinetics of Turkish bituminous coals by thermal analysis

Yakar Elbeyli I. | Pişkin S. | Sütcü H.

Article | 2004 | Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences28 ( 4 ) , pp.233 - 239

Simultaneous thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) was used to study the pyrolysis kinetics of Turkish bituminous coals. Thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) were employed to measure the weight changes and rates of weight loss, which were used for comparison of the thermal behaviour of several coals and calculation of their kinetic parameters. Coal samples were heated in TG-DTA apparatus in an inert atmosphere (100 ml min-1 nitrogen) at a temperature range of 25-1000 °C. The activation energy (Ea) and pre-exponential factor (A) were calculated from the experimental results by using an Arrheni . . .us-type kinetic model. The data indicate that the pyrolysis of coals is a 1-stage process. The decomposition stage (350-700 °C) has a best fit with first-order kinetics with Ea = 65-97 kJ mol-1 Daha fazlası Daha az

Pyrolysis of agricultural residues for bio-oil production

Alper K. | Tekin K. | Karagöz S.

Article | 2015 | Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy17 ( 1 ) , pp.211 - 223

The production of biofuel from biomass waste is of great interest to the scientific community regarding the discovery of solutions to global energy demand and global warming. The pyrolysis of biomass to produce bio-oil is an easy, cheap and promising technology. In the current investigation, the pyrolysis of two different biomasses (cornelian cherry stones and grape seeds) was achieved at temperatures ranging from 300 to 700 °C. The effect of pyrolysis temperatures on the yields of each product was significant. The bio-oil yields were maximized at 500 °C for cornelian cherry stones and 700 °C for grape seeds. The compositions of bio . . .-oils for both cornelian cherry stones and grape seeds were similar and contained mainly oxygenated hydrocarbons. The compounds observed in this investigation were composed of phenols, alkyl benzenes, alkanes, alkenes, fatty acids, fatty acid esters and a few nitrogen-containing compounds. Bio-char properties were amended in association with both the pyrolysis temperature and biomass type. Bio-chars from cornelian cherry stones contained higher carbon and lower oxygen levels than those from grape seeds under identical conditions. Increases in pyrolysis temperatures produced bio-chars containing higher carbon levels and heating values for both carnelian cherry stones and grape seeds. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Daha fazlası Daha az

Pyrolysis of peat: Product yield and characterization

Sutcu H.

Article | 2007 | Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering24 ( 5 ) , pp.736 - 741

Pyrolysis of peat obtained from Yeniçaga, Bolu, Turkey was conducted in a fixed-bed tube furnace under various conditions, and variations in the structure of the char, tar and gas products were examined. The chars produced were studied by proximate and ultimate analyses. The maximum tar yield of 20.41% was obtained at a heating rate of 20 °C/min, a temperature of 450 °C, a sweeping gas flow rate of 100 ml/min and a 0.5-2.0 mm size range. The chemical composition of the tar was examined by elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, 1H-NMR spectroscopy and column chromatography. The chemical composition of the tar with dense aliphatic str . . .ucture was established to be CH1.22O0.25N0.02. The composition of the gases obtained at a heating rate of 20 °C/min for the 0.5-2.0 mm size range was examined by gas chromatography. © 2007 Springer Daha fazlası Daha az

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