Particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheric environment of Zonguldak, Turkey

Akyüz M. | Çabuk H.

Article | 2008 | Science of the Total Environment405 ( 01.Mar ) , pp.62 - 70

Airborne fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particulate matter was collected from January to December in 2007 in Zonguldak, Turkey using dichotomous Partisol 2025 sampler. Fourteen selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter were determined simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FL) and seasonal distributions were examined. The source identification of PAHs in airborne particulates was performed by principal component analysis (PCA) in combination with diagnostic ratios. The predominant PAHs determined in PM2.5 were pyrene, fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracen . . .e, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene. The total concentrations of PAHs were up to 464.0 ng m- 3 in fine and 28.0 ng m- 3 in coarse fraction in winter, whereas in summer times were up to 22.9 and 3.0 ng m- 3 respectively. Approximately 93.3% of total PAHs concentration was determined in PM2.5 in winter and 84.0% in summer. The concentration levels of PAHs fluctuate significantly within a year with higher means and peak concentrations in the winter compared to that of summer times. Higher benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent (BaPE) concentrations of PAHs were obtained for PM2.5 especially in winter. The results obtained from PCA in combination with diagnostic ratios revealed that coal combustion and vehicle emissions were the major pollutant sources for both PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 associated PAHs in studied area. Two principal components for PM2.5 and three for PM2.5-10 were identified and these accounted for 89.4 and 85.2% of the total variance respectively. The emissions from coal combustion were estimated to be the main source of PAHs in the ambient air particulates with contributions of 80.8% of total variance for PM2.5 and 53.8% for PM2.5-10. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

Gas-particle partitioning and seasonal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of Zonguldak, Turkey

Akyüz M. | Çabuk H.

Article | 2010 | Science of the Total Environment408 ( 22 ) , pp.5550 - 5558

Atmospheric concentrations and gas-particle partition coefficients were determined for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere of Zonguldak, Turkey between May 2007 and April 2008. Total concentrations of PAHs ranged from 0.52ngm-3 to 636ngm-3 in the particle phase and from 5.60ngm-3 to 725ngm-3 in the gas phase. The annual mean concentrations of PAHs in the particle and gas phase were found to be 114ngm-3 and 184ngm-3, respectively. Significant seasonal variations of particle and gas phase PAH concentrations were observed with higher levels during cold period. The distribution of PAHs between the particle and gas . . .phase was investigated and it was found that three ring PAHs were associated primarily with the gas phase, four ring PAHs were distributed almost equally between the two phases and five and six ring PAHs were mainly associated with the particle phase. Gas-particle partition coefficients (Kp) of PAHs have been calculated and correlated with their subcooled liquid vapor pressures (PL-). The slopes (mr) varied from -0.63 to -0.23 were far from the theoretical value (-1) due to the short distance between the sampling point and the emission sources. The relationships between temperature and gas phase partial pressures of PAHs were examined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and the obtained positive slopes indicated that PAH concentrations increased with decreasing air temperature as a result of high dominance of local emissions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V Daha fazlası Daha az

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