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Penicillin-induced oxidative stress: Effects on antioxidative response of midgut tissues in instars of Galleria mellonella

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Kalender, Yusuf

Article | 2007 | Journal of Economic Entomology100 ( 5 ) , pp.1533 - 1541

Penicillin and other antibiotics are routinely incorporated in insect culture media. Although culturing insects in the presence of antibiotics is a decades-old practice, antibiotics can exert deleterious influences on insects. In this article, we test the hypothesis that one of the effects of dietary penicillin is to increase oxidative stress on insects. The effects of penicillin on midgut concentrations of the oxidative stress indicator malondialdehyde (MDA) and on midgut antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione S-transferase [GST], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) and transaminases (alanine amin . . .otransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) activities in greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), were investigated. The insects were reared from first instars on artificial diets containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, or 1.0 g penicillin per 100 g of diets. MDA content was significantly increased in the midgut tissues of each larval instar reared in the presence of high penicillin concentrations. Activities of antioxidant and transaminase enzymes did not show a consistent pattern with respect to penicillin concentrations in diet or age of larvae. Despite the increased penicillin-induced oxidative stress in gut tissue, antioxidant and transaminase enzymes did not correlate with oxidative stress level or between each other in larvae of other age stages except for the seventh instar. We found a significant negative correlation of MDA content with SOD and GST activities in seventh instars. SOD activity was also negatively correlated with CAT activity in seventh instars. These results suggest that exposure to dietary penicillin resulted in impaired enzymatic antioxidant defense capacity and metabolic functions in wax moth larval midgut tissues and that the resulting oxidative stress impacts midgut digestive physiology. © 2007 Entomological Society of America Daha fazlası Daha az

The effect of neomycin on survival and development of Pimpla turionellae L. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) reared on a natural host

Harmancı, Cumhur | Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Büyükgüzel, Ender

Article | 2019 | Journal of Economic Entomology112 ( 3 ) , pp.1081 - 1088

Understanding the effects of diet on metabolic events is crucial for biological control programs of parasitoid insects. As bioindicators of long-term physiological stress: survivorship of fifth instar larvae, pupation, adult survival, and developmental time for stages of endoparasitoid Pimpla turionellae L. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) were investigated by rearing the parasitoid on the host, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) pupae were treated with neomycin. First instar larvae of G. mellonella were reared on artificial diets containing 0.005, 0.01, or 0.5 g neomycin (g/100 g of diet) until seventh instar larvae; the p . . .upae from these larvae were used as a host for rearing P. turionellae. In the control group, the pupae from larvae reared on artificial diets without neomycin were used as a host. Survivorship of fifth instar, pupal, and adult stages of P. turionellae L. reared on G. mellonella pupae as a host fed with different concentrations of neomycin were significantly decreased in comparison to the control group. Approximately eighty percent of P. turionellae L. pupae were produced from control host pupae, while other neomycin concentrations significantly decreased the pupation of the parasitoid. Pimpla turionellae L. larvae reared on control host pupae reached fifth instar in about 9.6 ± 0.61 d, while the larvae reared from a host pupae exposed to the highest antibiotic concentration completed their development to the fifth instar in about 7.4 d. These results showed that neomycin, and possibly its metabolites, contaminated P. turionellae L. larvae from a host and affected larval stages of the parasitoid. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America Daha fazlası Daha az

The effect of anthelmintic triclabendazole on survival and development of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) L. reared on artificial diet.

Kılıç, Ali | Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Büyükgüzel, Ender

Article | 2015 | KAFKAS UNIVERSITESI VETERINER FAKULTESI DERGISI21 ( 6 ) , pp.841 - 847

The effect of triclabendazole, which is a benzimidazole anthelmintic, on the survival rate and developmental time in different stages of greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (L.) was investigated by rearing the larvae on the artificial diets. Triclabendazole was incorporated into diets at concentrations of 0.001, 0.01 or 0.1%. G. mellonella larvae was reared from first instar larvae to adult emergence on the artificial diets with different concentrations of triclabendazole. The survival rate in seventh instar (7th-instar) and adult stage were significantly lower at low concentrations of this anthelmintic agent (0.001 and 0.01 g per . . .100 g of diet) than the control, while there were no differences on pupation in comparison to control diet. However, the pupation and adult emergence were significantly lower at the highest dietary concentration of triclabendazole than control group but there were no differences on survival of 7th-instar larvae. The highest concentration of the anthelmintic agent (0.1 g/100 g diet) decreased pupation from 81.6 +/- 4.32% to 43.3 +/- 7.45%, adult emergence rate from 73.3 +/- 2.36 to 13.3 +/- 2.36. Triclabendazole at the highest concentration prolonged developmental time to 7th larval stage by 3.8 days reaching total 22.8 +/- 1.54 days. This diet containing 0.1% of triclabendazole significantly prolonged pupal developmental time from 24.6 +/- 1.24 days to 28.4 +/- 1.24 days, adult developmental time from 35.3 +/- 1.27 days to 42.0 +/- 1.62 days. This study is of importance in appreciation for usage of antihelmintic with different structure and mode of actions in the management of pest insects to reduce damage to environment and nontarget organisms Daha fazlası Daha az

Exposure to streptomycin alters oxidative and antioxidative response in larval midgut tissues of Galleria mellonella

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Kalender, Yusuf

Article | 2009 | Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology94 ( 02.Mar ) , pp.112 - 118

Although antibiotics have different molecular modes of actions, increasing evidence for their secondary effects suggests that they disturb cellular homeostasis by generating free radical intermediates that trigger lipid peroxidation, which leads to oxidative stress. Streptomycin is an antibiotic insecticide used to control pest insects and microbial diseases of agricultural crops. We investigated the biochemical basis for pro-oxidative effects of streptomycin in the midgut tissues of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) seventh-instar larvae by measuring content of the oxidative stress indicator, malondialdehyde (MDA), and ant . . .ioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and transaminases [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] activities. The insects were reared from first-instar larvae on artificial diets containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0 g streptomycin per 100 g of diets. The supplementation of streptomycin at high concentrations to the diets caused oxidative stress as evidenced by the elevation of MDA content, SOD and GPx activities, accompanied by the concurrent depletion of CAT and GST activities. The streptomycin-induced oxidative stress was also accompanied by decreases of transaminases activities in midgut tissues. We found a significant negative correlation of MDA contents with GST activities in the larval midgut tissues. These results suggest that exposure to dietary streptomycin resulted in oxidative stress which could impact midgut digestive physiology at the expense of impairment of antioxidant and transaminases enzymes in G. mellonella larvae. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

Eicosanoids mediate hemolymph oxidative and antioxidative response in larvae of Galleria mellonella L.

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Hyršl, Pavel | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2010 | Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology156 ( 2 ) , pp.176 - 183

Antioxidant enzymes play a major role in the defense against pro-oxidative effects of xenobiotics and pro-oxidant plant allelochemicals in insects. We posed the hypothesis that eicosanoids also mediate antioxidant enzymatic defense reactions to pro-oxidant challenge. To test this idea, we reared first-instar larvae of Galleria mellonella (L.) with the lypoxygenase inhibitor, esculetin (0.001%), the phospholipase A2 inhibitor, dexamethasone (0.001%) and the dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, phenidone (0.1%) to seventh-instars. Newly ecdysed seventh-instars were then fed on artificial diet containing 0.05% xanthotoxin . . . (XA) for 2 days. Treating seventh-instar larvae of G. mellonella with XA induced lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation as evident from the increased content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls respectively, and antioxidative enzymatic response in a dose-dependent manner. High dietary XA concentrations (0.005 and 0.1%) were associated with increasing MDA and carbonyl content (by 3-fold) and antioxidant enzyme activities, superoxide dismutase (SOD) (by 3-fold) and catalase (CAT) (by 4-fold), and glutathione-dependent enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST) (by 15-fold) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (by 7-fold). Relative to control, eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs) esculetin, dexamethasone and phenidone also resulted in impaired MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. However, carbonyl content did not differ between control- and EBIs-feeding larvae. Finally, MDA and carbonyl content, and antioxidant enzymes SOD, GST and GPx activities exhibited an incremental increase while CAT activity was decreased in the experimental larvae that had been reared on media amended with esculetin, dexamethasone and phenidone and then challenged with our standard XA challenge dose. Two of the markers indicated that significantly higher levels of oxidative stress were produced in the hemolymph tissue of larvae fed diets supplemented with EBIs and then challenged with XA. This oxidative stress was associated with elicited antioxidative responses by increasing SOD, GST and GPx and decreasing CAT activities in hemolymph. We infer from these findings that eicosanoids mediate insect antioxidant enzymatic responses to dietary pro-oxidants. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

The effects of oxyclozanide on survival, development and total protein of galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Çelik, Cihat | Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Büyükgüzel, Ender

Article | 2019 | Journal of the Entomological Research Society21 ( 1 ) , pp.95 - 108

We investigated that the effects of oxyclozanide on survival rate, development time, adult longevity and the amount of total protein (TP) in different developmental stages (7th-instars larvae, pupae and adult) of greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. First-instar larvae of insects were reared on 0.003, 0.03 and 0.3 g oxyclozanide in 100 g artificial diets. When compared to all tested concentrations of oxyclozanide and control diet without oxyclozanide, it was confirmed that this anthelmintic drug significantly reduced survival rate of 7th-instar larval stage, pupal and adult stage of G. mellonella. While 7th-instars larval rate is . . . 91.25 ± 6.21 % in the control diet without oxyclozanide, this rate has been determined 28.75 ± 3.24 % in the 0.3 % concentration of oxyclozanide. TP of the insect increased in response to all concentration of oxyclozanide in comparison to control diet. This considerable increase was expressed almost two-fold especially at the 0.003 and 0.03 % of oxyclozanide concentrations in all developmental stages. The results obtained from this research support that the oxyclozanide has effects on the survival, development, adult longevity and TP of the insect. © 2019 Gazi Entomological Research Society. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

The influence of dietary alpha-solanine on the waxmoth galleria mellonellal

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Erdem, Meltem | Adamski, Zbigniew | Adamski, Zbigniew | Marciniak, Pawel | Ziemnicki, Kazimierz

Article | 2013 | Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology83 ( 1 ) , pp.15 - 24

Plant allelochemicals are nonnutritional chemicals that interfere with the biology of herbivores. We posed the hypothesis that ingestion of a glycoalkaloid allelochemical, ?-solanine, impairs biological parameters of greater wax moths Galleria mellonella. To test this idea, we reared wax moths on artificial diets with 0.015, 0.15, or 1.5 mg/100 g diet of ?-solanine. Addition of ?-solanine to the diet affected survival of seventh-instar larvae, pupae, and adults; and female fecundity and fertility. The diet containing the highest ?-solanine concentration led to decreased survivorship, fecundity, and fertility. The diets supplemented . . .with ?-solanine led to increased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in midgut and fat body and the effect was dose-dependent. Dietary ?-solanine led to increased midgut glutathione S-transferase activity and to decreased fat body glutathione S-transferase activitiy. We infer from these findings that ?-solanine influences life history parameters and antioxidative enzyme activities in the midgut and fat body of G. mellonella. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc Daha fazlası Daha az

Laboratory assays of the effects of oxfendazole on biological parameters of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Sugeçti, Serkan | Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2016 | Journal of Entomological Science51 ( 2 ) , pp.129 - 137

Galleria mellonella L. larvae were reared on a standard diet amended with varying concentrations (0, 0.0015, 0.015, 0.15, and 1.5%) of the benzimidazole-derivative antihelmintic drug oxfendazole. Survivorship, developmental times, longevity, fecundity, and fertility were monitored over the treatments. Relative to the untreated control, exposure to diet containing 1.5% oxfendazole significantly decreased survivorship in larval, pupal, and adult stages, prolonged the time to reach the adult stage, and reduced adult longevity. Oxfendazole at all concentrations significantly lowered egg production per female and decreased egg hatch. The . . .se results demonstrate that this antihelmintic may be explored as a candidate for insect pest control Daha fazlası Daha az

Ingestion of the anti-bacterial agent, gemifloxacin mesylate, leads to increased gst activity and peroxidation products in hemolymph of Galleria mellonella l. (lepidoptera: pyralidae)

Erdem, Meltem | Küçük, Ceyhun | Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2016 | Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology93 ( 4 ) , pp.202 - 209

Gemifloxacin mesylate (GEM) is a synthetic, fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial antibiotic that has a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria. GEM inhibits DNA synthesis by inhibiting DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV activities. Recent research into insect nutrition and mass-rearing programs, in which antibiotics are incorporated into the culture media to maintain diet quality, raised a question of whether clinical antibiotics influence the health or biological performance of the insects that ingest these compounds. Because some antibiotics are pro-oxidant compounds, we addressed the question with experiments designed . . . to assess the effects of GEM (mesylate salt) on oxidative stress indicators, using Galleria mellonella larvae. The insects were reared from first-instar larvae to adulthood on artificial diets amended with GEM at 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, or 1.0%. Feeding on the 1% diets led to significantly increased hemolymph contents of the lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde and protein oxidation products, protein carbonyl. All GEM concentrations led to increased hemolymph glutathione S-transferase activity. We inferred that although it was not directly lethal to G. mellonella larvae, dietary exposure to GEM exerts measurable oxidative damage, possibly on insects generally. Long-term, multigenerational effects remain unknown. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc Daha fazlası Daha az

Effects of antiviral agent, acyclovir, on the biological fitness of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) adults

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2016 | Journal of Economic Entomology109 ( 5 ) , pp.2090 - 2095

The effects of a synthetic purine nucleoside analog, antiviral agent, acyclovir (ACV), on adult longevity, fecundity, and hatchability of a serious honeycomb pest, greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. were investigated by adding 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0% ACV into artificial and natural diets. Control larvae were reared on diet without ACV. The artificial diet containing the lowest level of ACV, 0.01%, raised egg production from a number of 12.9 ± 0.6 to 163.2 ± 1.3. The hatching rate of these eggs was increased from 49.2 ± 2.4% to 68.2 ± 3.2%. Higher concentrations of ACV in natural food significantly increased both egg production . . . and egg hatching rate. Female reared on old dark combs as natural diet exposed to 1.0% of ACV produced 167.5 ± 5.8 eggs with 93.2 ± 6.8% hatched. This study emphasizes the importance of determining the dietary impact of an antimicrobial agent as a food additive to a particular species of insect before its using for dietary antimicrobial purpose. © 2016 The Authors Daha fazlası Daha az

Boric acid-induced effects on protein profiles of Galleria mellonella hemolymph and fat body

Hyršl, Pavel | Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2008 | Acta Biologica Hungarica59 ( 3 ) , pp.281 - 288

The dietary effects of boric acid (BA) on the protein profiles of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), were investigated in hemolymph and fat body of final instar (VIIth) and pupae. The insects were reared from first-instar larvae on an artificial diets containing 156, 620, 1250 or 2500 ppm of BA. We detected many undetermined protein fractions (6.5-260 kDa) in addition to well-defined protein fractions such as lipophorins and storage proteins in the tissues by using sodium dodecyl-sulphate polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. A marked quantitative change in the 45 kDa protein fraction of the hemolymph was observed in . . . the VIIth instar larvae reared on 2500 ppm dietary BA. © 2008 Akadémiai Kiadó Daha fazlası Daha az

Bioluminescent assay for evaluating antimicrobial activity in insect haemolymph

Vojtek, Libor | Dobeš, Pavel | Büyükgüzel, Ender | Atosuo, Janne | Hyršl, Pavel

Article | 2014 | European Journal of Entomology111 ( 3 ) , pp.335 - 340

We describe an antibacterial assay based on bioluminescence of two Gram negative bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens and transformed Escherichia coli, which can be used as a real-time measurement of antibacterial activity in insect haemolymph. This method is based on the production of the bioluminescence signal depending on the viability of bacterial cells. We observed a significant rapid dose-dependent decrease in bioluminescence using both bacterial species, and Bombyx mori or Galleria mellonella haemolymph, which was confirmed by the decrease in bacterial viability determined by plating. The humoral origin of the antibacterial act . . .ivity observed in whole haemolymph was confirmed for haemolymph plasma without haemocytes. Antibacterial activity directed against Gram negative bacteria was recorded in unaffected insect larvae as well as after septic injury; increased antibacterial activity of haemolymph was detected in the latter case confirming the inducibility of antimicrobial agents. We think it is likely that this method could be widely used for determining antibacterial activity in insects and other invertebrates Daha fazlası Daha az

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