An approach to wave energy converter applications in Eregli on the western Black Sea coast of Turkey

Citiroglu, H. Keskin | Okur, A.

Article | 2014 | APPLIED ENERGY135 , pp.738 - 747

Major renewable energy types that are natural and sustainable and do not harm the environment include water, wind, solar, geothermal, hydrogen, oceanic, biofuel (organic fuel), wave and tidal energies. Of these, wave energy is a type of inexpensive and clean energy that does not require capital input and any costs except for those of initial investment and maintenance, does not release any pollutants into the atmosphere and thus presents a huge potential. The total amount of coal consumed in Eregli on the west coast of the Black Sea accounts for about 29% of overall coal consumption in Zonguldak. Although the heavy industry in Eregl . . .i is still dependent on fossil fuels, the satisfaction of the energy needs of even households in Eregli through renewable energy sources, mainly wave energy is of utmost importance to not only build a clean and healthy environment but also to achieve a cheap energy in Eregli, where a large amount of coal is consumed. Wave energy production seems more suited, at least in the beginning, for shoreline converters in Eregli. Eregli has suitable areas for the installation of an oscillating water column and tapered channel systems in terms of its geological features. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

Biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban and industrial environments of the Western Black Sea Region, Turkey

Çabuk, Hasan | Kılıç, Muhammet Samet | Ören, Muhammet

Article | 2014 | Environmental Monitoring and Assessment186 ( 3 ) , pp.1515 - 1524

This research was carried out in the cities of Zonguldak and Eregli, which have been characterized as urban and industrial environments of the Western Black Sea Region, Turkey, in order to assess the contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using mosses as biomonitors. The methodology involved the collection of moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme), ultrasonic extraction with dichloromethane, cleanup using silica gel and analysis by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 78.1 to 1693.5 ng g -1 in Zonguldak and from 15.2 to 275.1 ng g -1 in Eregli. The total PAH concen . . .tration in Eregli was about six times lower than that in Zonguldak, revealing the importance of switching from coal to natural gas in residential heating. The diagnostic ratios and the correlation analysis have indicated that coal combustion and traffic emissions were the major PAH sources at both sites. The contour maps were constructed for the determination of spatial distributions of total PAHs, and it was shown for Zonguldak as well as for Eregli that the PAH pollution was much more predominant in highly populated regions. Moving away from the city centres, a gradual decrease in PAH pollution rates was observed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Daha fazlası Daha az

Biomonitoring of metal deposition in the vicnity of Eregli steel plant in Turkey

Uyar, Güray | Ören, Muhammet | Yıldırım, Yılmaz | Öncel, Salim

Article | 2008 | Environmental Forensics9 ( 4 ) , pp.350 - 363

This article describes the first attempt to study the concentration of seven element (Fe, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, and As) contaminations in the vicinity of the Eregli Iron and Steel Plant (ERDEMIR) by analysis of two pleurocarpic moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme and Scleropodium purum). Samples of H. cupressiforme were collected from May 2003 to October 2004. Unwashed, dried samples were digested with HNO3/HClO4, and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). In the region, general orders of heavy metal content in samples of mosses were determined as follows: Fe > Pb . . .> Cr > Ni > Cu > Co > As. Comparisons were made between the two moss species for those elements presents at different concentrations and regression analysis were made to see interspecies relationship. H. cupressiforme and S. purum are significantly correlated for only Fe (P < 0.01) having Pearson's correlation coefficient as 0.93, indicating interspecies calibration for Fe. The ratios (Hc/Sp) were relatively better correlated with 1/Sp for As than for other metals, suggesting a saturation effect in H. cupressiforme for As. The deposition of metals due to the operation of the steel plant has been established and could be further monitored. Such information could be useful for forensic studies aiming to apportion between different possible sources of those metals. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Daha fazlası Daha az

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