Biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban and industrial environments of the Western Black Sea Region, Turkey

Çabuk, Hasan | Kılıç, Muhammet Samet | Ören, Muhammet

Article | 2014 | Environmental Monitoring and Assessment186 ( 3 ) , pp.1515 - 1524

This research was carried out in the cities of Zonguldak and Eregli, which have been characterized as urban and industrial environments of the Western Black Sea Region, Turkey, in order to assess the contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using mosses as biomonitors. The methodology involved the collection of moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme), ultrasonic extraction with dichloromethane, cleanup using silica gel and analysis by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 78.1 to 1693.5 ng g -1 in Zonguldak and from 15.2 to 275.1 ng g -1 in Eregli. The total PAH concen . . .tration in Eregli was about six times lower than that in Zonguldak, revealing the importance of switching from coal to natural gas in residential heating. The diagnostic ratios and the correlation analysis have indicated that coal combustion and traffic emissions were the major PAH sources at both sites. The contour maps were constructed for the determination of spatial distributions of total PAHs, and it was shown for Zonguldak as well as for Eregli that the PAH pollution was much more predominant in highly populated regions. Moving away from the city centres, a gradual decrease in PAH pollution rates was observed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Daha fazlası Daha az

Determination of heavy metal pollution in Zonguldak (Turkey) by moss analysis (Hypnum cupressiforme)

Uyar G. | Avcil E. | Ören M. | Karaca F. | Öncel M.S.

Article | 2009 | Environmental Engineering Science26 ( 1 ) , pp.183 - 194

This paper explores the first attempt at determining the levels of atmospheric heavy metal contamination in the Zonguldak province through the analysis of moss (Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw.). Sampling was performed at 24 sites after a wet period to avoid contamination from soil compounds in the province. Dried samples, which were unwashed but cleaned of soil particles and other extraneous material, were digested with HNO3/HClO4. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, and As) were analyzed by ICP-OES to estimate the geographic distribution of the atmospheric heavy metal depositions. The general order of the concentrati . . .ons of the heavy metal content in Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. was observed to be Fe > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr > As > Co. Mean levels of the measured elements were higher when compared to European levels. Arsenic, iron, and chromium were the most elevated elements when compared with European data. The mean concentrations of these elements in the studied area were 8.3 (Co), 6.7 (Fe), 5.2 (Cr), 4.6 (As), and 2.7 (Ni) times the background levels of the reference site (C3). Among the studied heavy metals, only lead showed little variation in measured values due to traffic in the area. Main sources of increased heavy metal content of the moss samples were found to be: i) the Çatalagzi Power Plant (CATES); ii) the Eregli Iron-Steel Plant (ERDEMIR); iii) space heating; and iv) traffic-related emissions. Results are presented in the form of color-scaled contour maps using a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based mapping technique. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2009 Daha fazlası Daha az

Biomonitoring of metal deposition in the vicnity of Eregli steel plant in Turkey

Uyar, Güray | Ören, Muhammet | Yıldırım, Yılmaz | Öncel, Salim

Article | 2008 | Environmental Forensics9 ( 4 ) , pp.350 - 363

This article describes the first attempt to study the concentration of seven element (Fe, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, and As) contaminations in the vicinity of the Eregli Iron and Steel Plant (ERDEMIR) by analysis of two pleurocarpic moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme and Scleropodium purum). Samples of H. cupressiforme were collected from May 2003 to October 2004. Unwashed, dried samples were digested with HNO3/HClO4, and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). In the region, general orders of heavy metal content in samples of mosses were determined as follows: Fe > Pb . . .> Cr > Ni > Cu > Co > As. Comparisons were made between the two moss species for those elements presents at different concentrations and regression analysis were made to see interspecies relationship. H. cupressiforme and S. purum are significantly correlated for only Fe (P < 0.01) having Pearson's correlation coefficient as 0.93, indicating interspecies calibration for Fe. The ratios (Hc/Sp) were relatively better correlated with 1/Sp for As than for other metals, suggesting a saturation effect in H. cupressiforme for As. The deposition of metals due to the operation of the steel plant has been established and could be further monitored. Such information could be useful for forensic studies aiming to apportion between different possible sources of those metals. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Daha fazlası Daha az

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