Environmental awareness level of secondary school students: A case study in Balikesir (Turkiye)

Altın, Ahmet | Tecer, Selcen | Tecer, Lokman | Altın, Süreyya | Kahraman, Bekir Fatih


In this study, secondary school students' awareness of environmental issues and problems and the level of their active participation in environmental activities have been identified, and the effects of some factors as family school and media on their environmental awareness and active participation have been investigated. The study was carried out in Balikesir city centre by conducting a survey on senior students consisting of 6 classes from three secondary schools which have different demographic and socio-economic levels. The results of the study showed a high level of environmental awareness among participant students. However, i . . .t is understood that environmental disclosures made in schools are insufficient and the participation level of students to environmental activities is low. Students rather gain experiences in the field of environment from mass media (i.e. audio, printed and visual media). It is revealed that female students have a higher level of environmental awareness and active participation level. In addition, when family income and family education level increases, environmental awareness and active participation level of students also increases. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd Daha fazlası Daha az

Environmental knowledge of primary school students: Zonguldak (Turkey) example

Alaydın, Elif | Demirel, Gülçin | Altın, Süreyya | Altın, Ahmet


The number of environmentally conscious individuals in society can be raised by increasing environmental education quality in primary schools. Starting studies about environment in the childhood years is very important. In this study, the knowledge and skill levels of primary school students in Zonguldak about waste recycling was determined, and the participation levels of theirs into recycling activities was measured. For this aim, the third and fourth grade primary school students were identified as a target group of the study, and a questionnaire assessing the impact of the parents' socio-economic structures and education status . . .on environmental awareness of theirs was prepared. The results were evaluated to determine the strengths and weaknesses of environmental education of the students, statistically. The questionnaire was conducted in three elementary schools having different social and economic levels. Questions in the first, second and last parts of the questionnaire relate with the demographic characteristics of students families, the environmental awareness of the students, and the participation of students into recycling activities, respectively. The survey reviews were carried out with a statistical program and differences between the schools were determined by using one way ANOVA test. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd Daha fazlası Daha az

Preparation and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHX) based nanoparticles for targeted cancer therapy

Kılıçay, Ebru | Demirbilek, Murat | Türk, Mustafa | Güven, Eylem | Hazer, Baki | Denkbaş, Emir Baki

Article | 2011 | EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES44 ( 3 ) , pp.310 - 320

Targeted drug delivery systems are one of the most promising alternatives for the cancer therapy. Rapid developments on nanomedicine facilitated the creation of novel nanotherapeutics by using different nanomaterials. Especially polymer based nanoparticles are convenient for this purpose. In this study; a natural polymer (poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate), PHBHHX) was used as a base matrix for the production of a novel nanotherapeutic including antineoplastic agent, Etoposide and attached folic acid as a ligand on the nanoparticles. Modified solvent evaporation technique was used for the production of PHBHHX nanoparticle . . .s and the average size of the obtained PHBHHX nanoparticles were observed in the range of 180 nm and 1.5 mu m by the change in experimental conditions (i.e., homogenization rate, surfactant concentration and polymer/solvent ratio). By the increase in homogenization rate and surfactant concentration, size of the nanoparticles was decreased, while the size was increased by the increase in polymer/solvent ratio. Drug loading ratio was also found to be highly affected by polymer/drug ratio. Surface charge of the prepared nanoparticles was also investigated by zeta potential measurements. In the cytotoxicity tests; Etoposide loaded and folic acid attached PHBHHX nanoparticles were observed as more effective on HeLa cells than Etoposide loaded PHBHHX nanoparticles without attached folic acid. The cytotoxicity of folic acid conjugated PHBHHX nanoparticles to cancer cells was found to be much higher than that of normal fibroblast cells, demonstrating that the folate conjugated nanoparticles has the ability to selectively target to cancer cells. In addition, apoptotic/necrotic activities were evaluated for all formulations of the PHBHHX nanoparticles and parallel results with cytotoxicity tests were obtained. These studies demonstrate that the folic acid attached and Etoposide loaded PHBHHX nanoparticles seem as promising for the targeted cancer therapy. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

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