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DNA gyrase inhibitors: Novobiocin enhances the survival of Pimpla turionellae (Hym., Ichneumonidae) larvae reared on an artificial diet but other antibiotics do not

Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2001 | Journal of Applied Entomology125 ( 09.Oct ) , pp.583 - 587

Effects of novobiocin, nalidixic and oxolinic acids, which are potent antibacterial agents, on the survival and development of the hymenopterous endoparasitoid, Pimpla turionellae L. (Ichneumonidae) were investigated alone by rearing the larvae aseptically on chemically defined synthetic diets. Survival of the fifth instar larvae was not significantly affected by diets with different levels of antibiotics tested. A diet containing the lowest level of novobiocin significantly increased yields of pupae and adults. This level also significantly shortened the developmental time for fifth instar but had no significant effect on complete . . .development of the larvae up to adult emergence. Oxolinic acid at the lowest level did not affect the survival but prolonged development of the insect. In general, the rate of development was significantly increased and the survival was decreased with high levels of the antibiotics. However, nalidixic acid caused a striking decrease in the survival at all tested levels. These results suggest that novobiocin and to a lesser extent oxolinic acid are compatible for addition to artificial diet for rearing P. turionellae, which is an important parasitoid used in biological control Daha fazlası Daha az

Bazı böcek türlerinde kimyasal iletişimi sağlayan proteinlerin moleküler yapıları ve biyokimyasal

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Tunaz, Hasan | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Other | 2006 | Türk Biyokimya Dergisi31 ( 4 ) , pp.194 - 206

Karasal ortamda yaşıyan hayvansal organizmaların koku alma duyuları (olfaktör sistem) uçucu hidrofobik molekülleri tespit ederek seçebilecek şekilde özelleşmiştir. Bu moleküllerin bazıları bitkisel kaynaklı uçucu bileşikler olup bazıları da hayvansal organizmalar tarafından salınan hidrofobik özellikte, hidrokarbon yapısında ve feromonlar olarak isimlendirilen koku molekülleridir. Böceklerin antenlerinin birincil görevi, karşı eşeyden salınan eşey feromonlarını, diğer fizyolojik ve davranışsal işlevleri gerçekleştiren semiokimyasalları ve bitkisel kaynaklı uçucu molekülleri içeren kokuları algılamaktır. Lepidoptera takımına ait güve . . . türlerinin antenlerinde trikoid ve bazikonik olarak isimlendirilen iki olfaktör duyu almacı (sensilyum) belirlenmiştir. Trikoid sensilyumlar feromonları algılamak üzere özelleşmiştir. Hidrofobik semiokimyasallar koku bağlayıcı proteinler tarafından bağlanarak çözünür forma dönüştürüldükten sonra sensillar lenfteki sulu ortamdan sinyal iletiminin başlatıldığı olfaktör reseptöre doğru taşınır. Bu proteinler altı adet sistein amino asidi taşıması nedeniyle benzer yapıda olup feromon bağlayan proteinler ve koku bağlayan proteinler olarak iki alt gruba ayrılır. Üç adet disülfür bağı oluşturan bu sistein amino asitleri proteinlerin üç boyutlu yapılarının kararlılığı için gereklidir. Feromonlar böcekler, diğer hayvan grupları ve insanlar tarafından kimyasal iletişimi sağlamak amacıyla salınan kokusuz, doğal moleküllerdir. Bu moleküller, dişi böceğin erkeğini kilometrelerce uzaktan bulabilmesini sağlayacak kadar etkindir. Feromon bağlayan proteinler Lepidoptera takımına ait güveler ve diğer böcek türlerindeki çeşitli duyu organlarında bulunan, düşük moleküler ağırlığa sahip (13-17 kDa) heliks yapısında proteinlerdir. Koku bağlayan proteinler ise kimyasal duyu sensilyumlarının lenf sıvısında oldukça yoğun olarak bulunan düşük moleküler ağırlıklı (15 kDa) çözünür proteinlerdir. Diğer birçok böcek türlerinin çeşitli duyu organlarında küçük bir protein grubu daha belirlenmiştir. Dört sistein amino asidi içermesinden dolayı feromon bağlayıcı protein ve koku bağlayıcı protein ile amino asit dizilişi bakımından daha az benzerlik gösteren bu proteinler, kimyasal duyu proteinleri olarak ayrı bir gruba dahil edilir. Bunlar koku ve tat gibi kimyasal sinyallerin algılanmasından sorumlu olup çeşitli kimyasalların hava ve su ortamından reseptörlere taşınmasında rol oynar. The olfactory systems of terrestial animals are designed to trap and sample volatile hydrophobic molecules. Some of these molecules are odorants, such as volatile plant compounds and pheromones emitted from the other organisms. Insect antennae have a primary function of detecting odors including sex pheromones and plant volatiles. In moths, the organs devoted to olfactory perception have been identified in antennae as the sensilla trichoid and basiconic, the former being tuned to the perception of pheromones. The hydrophobic semiochemicals are solublized by odorant-binding proteins and transported through an aqueous environment (sensillar lymph) to the olfactory receptors, where the signal transduction starts. These proteins, subdivided into pheromone-binding proteins and general odorant-binding proteins, all have a hallmark of six conserved cysteine residues forming three disulfide bridges which are essential for the rigidity of their three-dimensional structures. Pheromones are naturally occuring odorless chemical messenger compounds found in all insects, animals, and humans. They could attract male insects from a long distance exceeding kilometers. Pheromone-binding proteins are small helical proteins (13-17 kDa) present in several sensory organs from moth and other insect species. Odorant-binding proteins are small (15 kDa) soluble proteins, very concentrated in the lymph of chemosensory sensilla. A third class of small proteins has been identified in several sensorial organs from a number of insect orders. They have been separated into a group of chemosensory proteins, characterized by four cystein residues and with low sequence similarity to odorant-binding proteins. They are involved in chemoperception (olfaction and taste) and to play a role in chemical transport from air or water to chemosensitive receptors Daha fazlası Daha az

Eicosanoids in insect immunity: Bacterial infection stimulates hemocytic phospholipase A(2) activity in tobacco hornworms

Tunaz, Hasan | Park, Youngjin | Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Bedick, Job C. | Aliza, A.R. Nor | Stanley, David W.

Article | 2003 | ARCHIVES OF INSECT BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY52 ( 1 ) , pp.1 - 6

Intracellular phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) is responsible for releasing arachidonic acid from cellular phospholipids, and is thought to be the first step in eicosanoid biosynthesis. Intracellular PLA(2)s have been characterized in fat body and hemocytes from tobacco hornworms, Manduco sexta. here we show that bacterial challenge stimulated increased PLA(2) activity in isolated hemocyte preparations, relative to control hemocyte preparations that were challenged with water. The increased activity was detected as early as 15 s post-challenge and lasted for at least 1 h. The increased activity depended on a minimum bacterial challenge d . . .ose, and was inhibited in reactions conducted in the presence of oleyoxyethylphosphorylcholine, a site-specific PLA(2) inhibitor. In independent experiments with serum prepared from whole hemolymph, we found no PLA(2) activity was secreted into serum during the first 24 h following bacterial infection. We infer that a hemocytic intracellular PLA(2) activity is increased immediately an infection is detected. The significance of this enzyme lies in its role in launching the biosynthesis of eicosanoids, which mediate cellular immune reactions to bacterial infection Daha fazlası Daha az

Effect of eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors on the haemolymph protein profile of Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Hyrsl, Pavel | Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Other | 2011 | Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi35 ( 3 ) , pp.397 - 405

Eikosanoidlerin böceklerin hücresel, humoral immün savunma reaksiyonlarına ve strese karşı tepkilerine aracılık ettiği bilinmektedir. Bu aracı moleküllerin işlevi farklı eikosanoid biyosentezi inhibitörleri tarafından spesifik olarak önlenebilir. Bu inhibitörlerin böceklerde total hemolenf protein bileşimi üzerine etkileri detaylı olarak çalışılmamıştır. Eikosanoidlerin böceklerde stress faktörlerine karşı sentezlenen ve diğer savunma reaksiyonlarından sorumlu proteinler üzerinde etkili olarak fizyolojik dengenin sağlanma-sına aracılık ettiği düşünülmüştür. Bu sebeple Büyük bal mumu güvesi Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepid . . .optera: Pyralidae) larvaları farklı etki mekanizmalarına sahip eikosanoid biyosentezi inhibitörleri eskuletin, deksametazon ve fenidonu % 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 ve 1.0 oranında içeren yapay besinler ile beslenmiştir. Larvaların eskuletin ile beslenmesi 45 kDa protein bileşiminde (belirlenen 16 protein bandından biri) uygulanan inhibitörün dozuna bağlı olarak önemli değişime sebep olmuştur. Diğer başlıca hemolenf proteinlerinden lipoforinler (ApoLP-I) ve depo proteinleri üzerinde denenen eikosanoid biyosentezi inhibitörlerinin önemli bir etkisi olmamıştır. Deksametazon ve fenidon hemolenf proteinlerinde önemli bir değişikliğe sebep olmamıştır. Bu çalışmanın sonuçları eikosanoidlerin, en azından lipoksijenaz ürünlerinin, böcek dokularında yapısal ve işlevsel olarak protein bileşimi üzerinde etkili olduğunu göstermiştir. Eikosanoid biyosentezi inhibitörlerinin doğrudan zararlı böceklerin kontrolünde kullanılması yaygın olmasa da bu çalışmadan elde edilen sonuçlar böceklerde eikosanoidlerin fizyolojik sinyal sistemlerindeki rollerinin anlaşılmasına katkıda bulunmaktadır. Eicosanoids mediate insects cellular and humoral immune reactions and stress responses. Function of these mediators can be specifically blocked using different eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs). Effects of EBIs on total haemolymph protein composition have not been extensively studied in insects. We posed the hypothesis that eicosanoids also mediate physiological homeostasis by regulating protein profiles involved in stress response and other defensive reactions. To test this idea, we reared greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus,1758) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae on artificial diets containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0% of specific EBIs with different mode of action: Esculetin, dexamethasone and phenidone. Feeding larvae with esculetin caused significantly dose-dependent changes in 45 kDa protein fraction (one of 16 proteins detected) using sodium dodecyl-sulphate polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining. Other main haemolymph proteins, lipophorins (ApoLP-I) and storage proteins, were not affected by EBIs treatments. Dexamethasone and phenidone caused no significant differences in detected protein fractions. We infer from these findings that eicosanoids, at least lipoxygenase products, have been implicated in the protein composition of insect tissues as structural and functional concept. Although it has not yet been possible to use directly EBIs for insect pest control, our results bring new data to understand physiological signaling systems in insects Daha fazlası Daha az

Gemifloksasinin Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) erginlerinin bazı biyolojik özelliklerine etkisi

Hız, Pınar | Erdem, Meltem | Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2016 | Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi22 ( 5 ) , pp.777 - 784

Büyük bal mumu güvesi Galleria mellonella L. mikrobiyal enfeksiyonların ve klinik ilaçların çalışılmasında memeli modellerine alternatif bir model olarak bilindiği gibi insektisit etkinliği çalışmalarında da model böcek olarak yaygın kullanıma sahiptir. Bu böceğin larvaları yapay besin ortamında beslenerek fluorokinolon sınıfından bir antibiyotik olan gemifloksasinin böceğin eşey oranı, dişi ve erkek ömür uzunluğu, yumurta verimi, açılma oranı gibi ergin biyolojik özellikleri üzerine etkisi laboratuvar şartlarında incelendi. Böceğin birinci evre larvaları %0.001, 0.01, 0.1 ve 1.0 oranında gemifloksasin içeren yapay besinler ile ergi . . .n evreye kadar beslendi. Gemifloksasinin denenen konsantrasyonlarını içeren besinler erkek ve dişi eşey oranı ile erginlerin ömür uzunluğu üzerinde etkili olmadığı halde yumurta verimini önemli derecede düşürdüğü belirlendi. Artan besinsel gemifloksasin konsantrasyonları ile ters orantılı olarak yumurta verimi ve açılma oranı azaldı. Kontrol besini ile yetiştirilen dişiler günde 134.46 adet yumurta üretirken gemifloksasinin yüksek miktarlarında dişiler 26.75 ve 53.5 yumurta bıraktılar. Yumurtaların açılma oranı da gemifloksasinin %0.01'lik konsantrasyonundan itibaren önemli derecede azalmış olup, en yüksek konsantrasyon bu oranı %53.71'e düşürdü. Bu çalışma erginlerin biyolojik özelliklerinin gemifloksasin tarafından önemli derecede etkilendiğini ve bu etkilerin antibiyotiğin konsantrasyonlarına bağımlı değişimler olduğunu gösterdi. Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. is most commonly used as model insects for studying insecticidal efficiency of chemicals as well as it has been known as an alternative model to mamalian model for studying microbial infections and clinical drugs. The effects of a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent, gemifloxacin, on sex ratio, male and female adult longevity, fecundity and hatchability of this insect were investigated by rearing the first instar larvae on artificial diets in the laboratory condition. The insect was reared from first-instar larvae to adult stage on an artificial diets containing gemifloxacin at 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0%. Gemifloxacin did not affect male and female sex ratio and adult longevity while it significantly decreased egg number. Fecundity and hatchability were significantly and inversely decreased by increasing gemifloxacin concentrations. The females reared from control diet produced 134.46 per day, whereas high concentrations of gemifloxacin decreased the egg number to 26.75 and 53.5. Hatchability was also significantly decreased by 0.01% and above concentrations of gemifloxacin whereas, the highest concentration of antibiotic lowered the hatchability to 53.71%. This study indicated sublethal effects of gemifloxacin are likely to have a significant impact on adult biological traits and these effects show concentration-dependent variation in biological traits of the insect Daha fazlası Daha az

Prostaglandin biosynthesis by midgut tissue isolated from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta

Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Tunaz, Hasan | Putnam, Sean M. | Stanley, David

Article | 2002 | Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology32 ( 4 ) , pp.435 - 443

We describe prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis by isolated midgut preparations from tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta. Microsomal-enriched midgut preparations yielded four PGs, PGA/B2, PGD2, PGE2 and PGF22? all of which were confirmed by analysis on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PGA and PGB are double bond isomers which do not resolve on TLC but do resolve by GC; for convenience, we use the single term PGA2 for this product. PGA2 was the major product under most conditions. The midgut preparations were sensitive to reaction conditions, including radioactive substrate, protein concentration (optimal at 1 mg/reaction), rea . . .ction time (optimal at 0.5 min), temperature (optimal at 22°C), buffer pH (highest at pH 6), and the presence of a co-factor cocktail composed of reduced glutathione, hydroquinine and hemoglobin. In vitro PG biosynthesis was inhibited by two cyclooxygenase inhibitors, indomethacin and naproxen. Subcellular localization of PG biosynthetic activity in midgut preparations, determined by ultracentrifugation, revealed the presence of PG biosynthetic activity in the cytosolic and microsomal fractions, although most activity was found in the cytosolic fractions. This is similar to other invertebrates, and different from mammalian preparations, in which the activity is exclusively associated with the microsomal fractions. Midgut preparations from M. sexta pupae, adult cockroach, Periplaneta americana, and corn ear worms, Helicoverpa zea, also produced the same four major PG products. We infer that insect midguts are competent to biosynthesize PGs, and speculate they exert important, albeit unrevealed, actions in midgut physiology. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

Laboratory assays of the effects of oxfendazole on biological parameters of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Sugeçti, Serkan | Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2016 | Journal of Entomological Science51 ( 2 ) , pp.129 - 137

Galleria mellonella L. larvae were reared on a standard diet amended with varying concentrations (0, 0.0015, 0.015, 0.15, and 1.5%) of the benzimidazole-derivative antihelmintic drug oxfendazole. Survivorship, developmental times, longevity, fecundity, and fertility were monitored over the treatments. Relative to the untreated control, exposure to diet containing 1.5% oxfendazole significantly decreased survivorship in larval, pupal, and adult stages, prolonged the time to reach the adult stage, and reduced adult longevity. Oxfendazole at all concentrations significantly lowered egg production per female and decreased egg hatch. The . . .se results demonstrate that this antihelmintic may be explored as a candidate for insect pest control Daha fazlası Daha az

Boric acid-induced effects on protein profiles of Galleria mellonella hemolymph and fat body

Hyršl, Pavel | Büyükgüzel, Ender | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2008 | Acta Biologica Hungarica59 ( 3 ) , pp.281 - 288

The dietary effects of boric acid (BA) on the protein profiles of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), were investigated in hemolymph and fat body of final instar (VIIth) and pupae. The insects were reared from first-instar larvae on an artificial diets containing 156, 620, 1250 or 2500 ppm of BA. We detected many undetermined protein fractions (6.5-260 kDa) in addition to well-defined protein fractions such as lipophorins and storage proteins in the tissues by using sodium dodecyl-sulphate polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. A marked quantitative change in the 45 kDa protein fraction of the hemolymph was observed in . . . the VIIth instar larvae reared on 2500 ppm dietary BA. © 2008 Akadémiai Kiadó Daha fazlası Daha az

Positive effects of some gyrase inhibitors on survival and development of Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera : Ichneumonidae) larvae reared on an artificial diet

Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2001 | JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY94 ( 1 ) , pp.21 - 26

Effects of novobiocin, nalidixic, and oxolinic acids on the survival and development of the hymenopterous endoparasitoid Pimpla turionellae L. were investigated alone and in various combinations by rearing larvae aseptically on chemically defined synthetic diets. Effects varied with the levels and kinds of the antibiotics in the tested combinations. Among the tested antibiotics alone, only the lowest level of novobiocin enhanced the postlarval survival. Most of the combinations significantly increased the number of survivors in the postlarval developmental stages. Novobiocin in combination with nalidixic acid (6.0:2.0 mg) in the art . . .ificial diet produced a yield of 80.8% pupae and 69.4% adults, respectively. This combination also shortened the developmental time to adult emergence. Similarly, on most of the diets with combinations of the antibiotics, the development of the larvae up to adult stage was noticeably faster than those on the control diets. An approximate to 50% reduction in the percentages of pupae and adults was recorded bs 6.0 mg of novobiocin in combination with 0.75 mg of oxolinic acid compared with the control diet. Although this combination prolonged the complete development of the insect according to other novobiocin and oxolinic acid combinations, developmental time was significantly shorter than that with control diet Daha fazlası Daha az

Inhibition of eicosanoid signaling leads to increased lipid peroxidation in a host/parasitoid system

Büyükgüzel, Ender | Erdem, meltem | Tunaz, Hasan | Küçük, Ceyhun | Atılgan, Utku Can | Stanley, David | Büyükgüzel, Kemal

Article | 2017 | Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology -Part A : Molecular and Integrative Physiology204 , pp.121 - 128

We posed the hypothesis that inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis leads to increased lipid peroxidation in insects. Here we report that rearing the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, on media supplemented with selected inhibitors of eicosanoid biosynthesis throughout the larval, pupal and adult life led to major alterations in selected oxidative and antioxidative parameters of wax moth and its ectoparasitoid, Bracon hebetor. The highest dietary dexamethasone (Dex), esculetin (Esc) and phenidone (Phe) led to increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and to elevated catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities in al . . .l developmental stages of host larvae. Dietary Phe resulted in increased MDA levels, and CAT activity in G. mellonella adults by about 4-fold and about 2-fold, respectively. The Phe effect on GST activity in all stages of the wax moth was expressed in a dose-dependent manner, increased to 140 nmol/mg protein/min in larvae. MDA levels were increased by over 30-fold in adult wasps reared on Dex- and Esc-treated hosts. CAT and GST activities were increased in adult parasitoids reared on Esc-and Phe-treated hosts. GST activity of Dex-treated parasitoid larvae increased from about 4 to over 30 nmol/mg protein/min. Dietary Phe led to increased GST activity, by about 25-fold, in adult wasps. These data indicate that chronic inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis leads to increased oxidative stress, strongly supporting our hypothesis. The significance of this work lies in understanding the roles of eicosanoids in insect biology. Aside from other well-known eicosanoids actions, we propose that eicosanoids mediate reductions in oxidative stress. © 2016 Elsevier Inc Daha fazlası Daha az

Biochemical stress indicators of greater wax moth exposure to organophosphorus insecticides

İçen, Ender | Armutçu, Ferah | Büyükgüzel, Kemal | Gürel, Ahmet

Article | 2005 | Journal of Economic Entomology98 ( 2 ) , pp.358 - 366

Although acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the primary target of organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), increasing evidence regarding their secondary effects suggests that OPs disturb homeostasis of insects by generating free radical intermediates that trigger lipid peroxidation. We therefore investigated alterations in lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, in conjunction with AChE activity as biochemical stress indicators in greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) larvae for OPs methyl parathion (MP) and ethyl parathion (EP). The . . .effects of MP and EP were first investigated by rearing the young larvae on an artificial diet containing 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ppm of each insecticide. Second, the mature larvae were injected with 0.05, 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 ng of insecticides for determining the changes in biochemical stress responses. The diet with lowest level of MP significantly decreased the activities of all measured enzymes, whereas it increased MDA content. However ALT and AST were significantly higher in the larvae reared with the diet with high levels of MP than in control larvae. All tested levels of MP resulted in a decrease in AChE activity. The lowest level of EP in diet (0.01 ppm) significantly increased ALT activity, whereas it reduced that of AChE. This insecticide at 0.1 ppm resulted in reduced AST activity, but 1 ppm in diet elevated AST activity and MDA content. EP at 0.1 ppm and higher levels in the diet reduced ALT activity. All dietary EP levels significantly decreased AChE activity. ALT, AST, and AChE were lower in larvae fed with the diet containing 100 ppm ethyl parathion compared with larvae on control diet. MP at 50 ng per larva increased ALT and AST activities from 35.42 ± 0.74 and 26.34 ± 0.83 to 203.57 ± 1.09, and 122.90 ± 1.21 U/g, respectively, when the mature larvae were injected. All injected doses of EP dramatically reduced both ALT and AST activities, but only the lowest and highest levels of this insecticide decreased AChE activity. The lowest level of this insecticide also significantly increased MDA content in larvae. High levels of both insecticides increased MDA content. We observed a significant higher increase in MDA content in the larvae reared with 10 ppm EP (102.16 ± 1.57 nmol/g protein) than the control group (30.28 ± 1.42 nmol/g protein). These results suggest that OPs caused the metabolic and synaptic dysfunctions in greater wax moth and alter its biochemical physiology in response to oxidative stress. © 2005 Entomological Society of America Daha fazlası Daha az

Effects of gyrase inhibitors on the total protein content of Pimpla turionellae L. reared on an artificial diet

Büyükgüzel, Kemal | İçen, Ender

Article | 2004 | Journal of Entomological Science39 ( 1 ) , pp.108 - 116

The effects of antibiotics, novobiocin, nalidixic acid and oxolinic acid, singly and in combinations, on the wet weight and total protein content of the hymenopterous endoparasitoid, Pimpla turionellae L., were investigated by rearing the larvae aseptically on chemically defined synthetic diets. Oxolinic acid, at all levels tested, caused a greater increase in the total protein content of the young pupae than other antibiotics; whereas, 2.25 mg of this agent decreased both the wet weight and total protein of adults. However, this antibiotic did not affect the pupal wet weight. High levels of novobiocin increased the protein content . . .of the pupae but had no effect on that of the adults. The lowest level of this antibiotic significantly increased pupal and adult wet weight. While this level of antibiotic had no effect on pupal protein content, it significantly increased the protein content of adults. The highest tested level of nalidixic acid caused a significant decrease in the pupal and adult wet weight of the insect. This level increased total protein content of the pupae. None of the tested levels of this antibiotic had an effect on the protein content of the adults. The combinations with two antibiotics had no significant effects on the total protein content, while some increased the wet weight of the insect. Some ternary combinations of novobiocin, nalidixic acid and oxolinic acid (6.0:2.0:0.75, 6.0:2.0:3,0, and 1.5: 4.0:0.75 mg) significantly increased the total protein content in adults of the insect, and the combination of 6.0:2.0:0.75 increased the protein content and wet weight of pupae. It is suggested that these three antibiotics singly and in combination can be used in artificial rearing of this parasitoid Daha fazlası Daha az

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